President of Playcare, Inc., Betsy Caesar is a playground designer and playground safety expert. Betsy believes that "the greatest single cause of playground injury is the lack of maintenance. A playground that is created but not maintained in a safe manner can be the cause of serious injury or...
The early twentieth century Frenchman Roger Caillois was a scholar who studied topics in sociology, biology, anthropology, geology, linguistics, religions, and mythology and how they interconnect and influence each other.
As an independent and nonprofit organization, the California Roundtable on Recreation, Parks and Tourism supports both public and private programs in California by coordinating their programs and resources.
Originally founded as Camp Fire Girls, Camp Fire USA is a national youth development organization that serves boys and girls, with an emphasis on school-aged children. Camp Fire USA's program encompasses four core areas: Caring, Camping, Contributing, and Connecting.
Usually played outdoors, Capture the Flag is played with two teams of children with the object of capturing the opponent’s flag. The Capture the Flag game has its origins on the battlefield where armies would fly their flags while engaged in battle.
Carter Oosterhouse founded a non-profit organization called Carter's Kids. The purpose of Carter's Kids is to increase a child's activity level by building and developing community parks and playgrounds in their neighborhoods.
A school health program, CATCH focuses on physical activity, healthy food choices, and the prevention of tobacco use for children from preschool through 8th grade. CATCH seeks to reduce and eliminate health risk factors for children, including the risks of obesity and diabetes.
Founded in 1978, Cemrock Naturalistic Environments constructs, fabricates, and installs concrete landscaping features and realistic exhibits for zoos, aquariums, parks, playgrounds, and museums.
The Communicable Disease Center was formed in 1946 by Dr. Joseph W. Mountin, a "visionary public health leader." The CDC originally focused primarily on eradicating malaria. By 1950 they had expanded to become a center for disease surveillance through the solution of the Salk vaccine contamination...
The Certified Park and Recreation Executive certification is a mastery-level certification program for park and recreation management and administration professionals. The Certified Park and Recreation Executive certification is offered by the National Recreation and Park Association.
The National Recreation and Park Association offers the Certified Park and Recreation Professional certification for professionals in the parks, leisure, and recreation fields. The 150 question exam, which covers areas of general administration, programming, and operations management, has been...
A Certified Playground Safety Inspector has passed the National Recreation and Park Association National Playground Safety Institute's examination. The ASTM International and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission are the safety standards used for this test.
Children love a challenge. They enjoy the sense of mastery over their body and its emotions, especially fear. As they play, they test their abilities, giving themselves new goals and challenges to master. Mastering challenges results in giving children a sense of personal power and a satisfying...
The Charleston Park Conservancy (CPC) Garden in the Parks program is managed by the Charleston Park Angels volunteers. The Charleston Park Angels seek to connect the community to the city's parks through vision, education, and involvement.
Checkers is a popular board game played by children and adults alike. The game is played on a checkerboard of two colors, usually black and red, with the most popular size in America being 64 squares on an 8x8 board. The board game is played around the world and is known as draughts (pronounced "...
Various hazardous chemicals and poisons can sometimes be found in a playground environment. These chemicals and poisons are the result of treatments applied to play equipment or living organisms that affect playground areas.
Chicago Children's Museum is a not-for-profit, hands-on museum whose mission is to "create a community where play and learning connect." Chicago Children's Museum has child-centered interactive exhibits that utilize play to address children's developmental needs.
Launched in 2003, Chicago Toy & Game Group is a series of events, awards, and resources to encourage invention of toys and games. The Chicago Toy & Game Week hosts the International T&G Conference, TAGIE Awards, the Social Media @ Play Conference, the I-SPI, the Play with Purpose...
A "gamer-run" nonprofit organization, Child's Play coordinates game and toy donations for children's hospitals worldwide. By providing videogame consoles, videogames, videos, coloring books, cartoons, books, and arts and crafts supplies Child's Play seeks to ameliorate the stress of long-term...
A commercial playground equipment manufacturer, Childforms offers a full line of modular play structures and play environments for early childhood and elementary market. They believe in "offering quality products at a fair price with excellent customer service" and in "assisting our children in...
A blog-based website, Childhood 101 was founded by Christie Burnett as a central location for information about children and play with content written by Christie and other parents. The Childhood 101 blog has grown into a website and an e-zine.
Children & Nature Network was founded in 2006 to address the Nature Deficit Disorder issue raised by Richard Louv's book Last Child in the Woods. Richard and five other leaders in diverse fields created the nonprofit Children & Nature Network with the initiative to "Leave No Child Inside."...
Written by Howard P. Chudacoff, Children At Play is a history of children's play in America from 1600 to the 21st century.
Children On Playgrounds: Research Perspectives and Applications is a collection of research and review papers edited by Craig H. Hart that sheds light on practical child development issues in the context of outdoor play environments.
Children's museums are not traditional museums with exhibits of ancient artifacts scaled down for children. They are interactive places designed specifically for children where they learn through play and exploration. Children discover and gain understanding through a myriad of experiences in a...
The California Roundtable on Recreation, Parks and Tourism identifies ten outdoor activities that represent the basic outdoor needs of children for healthy development called the Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights. Many other states have adopted their own Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights to...
Choking occurs when children cannot breathe normally because their airway is obstructed. Good playground maintenance can help avoid the dangers of choking and strangulation.
Dr. Keith M. Christensen is a landscape architect, professor, researcher, and the founder and director of Beyond Access, a program which offers technical assistance when designing inclusive play environments. He believes that "Inclusive play experiences help children with and without disabilities...
Monty Christiansen has been concerned about children's safety as a designer of playgrounds, a Certified Playground Safety Inspector, professor, author, and active member in numerous professional associations.
Throughout history and around the world children have been playing clapping games. Hand clapping, often in complex patterns while chanting rhymes, requires concentration, coordination, and cooperation with at least one other child.
Classic Toys of the National Toy Hall of Fame was written by Scott G. Eberle and Strong National Museum of Play. The book describes the classic toys that have been inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame from 1998 to 2008.
Climbinet was founded in 2010 to offer more affordable rope play structures for outdoor climbing. Without sacrificing durability or safety standards, Climbinet manufactures climbing rope structures with unique technical features that increase durability.
Climbing is an activity that children enjoy from an early age. They climb for excitement and the feeling of achievement. Exploration is an important part of climbing, whether they are climbing a tree or scaling a rock wall.
Cognitive development is a natural mental process of growth of perception, memory, judgment, reasoning, and other conscious intellectual activity.
A toy developer and manufacturing company, Coleco was most famous for the home video game system, ColecoVision, and the Cabbage Patch dolls. Coleco also produced wading pools, doll carriages, tabletop hockey games, electronic hand-held games, Power Cycle plastic tricycles, pinball machines, pool...
John Amos Comenius was an education reformer and religious leader who is now known as the Father of Modern Education. He revolutionized education in the way school systems were set up, created a general theory of education around the idea of children learning at a natural pace from simple concepts...
Competition is rivalry for supremacy, which may result in a prize, honor, or advantage. Competition is about winning and losing; if someone wins, then one or more children lose. Competition is a learned behavior.
The definition of a completely bounded opening is any opening in a piece of play equipment that is totally enclosed by boundaries on all sides so that the perimeter of the opening is continuous.
The concrete operational stage is the third of four stages proposed by Jean Piaget to describe the cognitive development of infants, children, and adolescents. The concrete operational stage involves children from ages 7-12.
Confidence can be defined as the belief in the powers, trustworthiness, or reliability of a person or thing. A confident child displays a belief in his own abilities. Confidence is developed over time as he learns to trust himself. Both internal messages and external feedback from others play an...
When children manipulate their environment to create things, they are engaged in constructive play. Experimenting with materials, they can build towers with blocks, construct objects with miscellaneous loose parts, play in the sand, and draw sidewalk murals with chalk.
Constructive Playthings is a division of U.S. Toy Company that focuses on providing teaching aids, supplies, and equipment for preschools, churches, daycare facilities, and other early childhood educational entities.
A non-profit organization focusing on advocacy, research, education and service, the Consumer Federation of America has a membership of over 50 million individuals and 280 organizations. CFA focuses on four areas: advocacy, research, education and service.
A United Nations legally binding treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child incorporates respect for all children's needs. Article 31 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child gives the child the right to play.
Cooperation is the act of working together for a common purpose. Cooperation is a learned behavior that can be improved and modified, which is especially developed during childhood.
In the development of social play by preschoolers, cooperative play has been designated as the highest category of play. Cooperative play focuses on children working together to achieve a common goal, such as building a play structure, putting together a puzzle, or engaging in dramatic play.
The definition of coordination is the ability to develop patterns of movement efficiently integrating visual information with the movement of the limbs. In children, coordination of motor skills develops as the child ages and experiences new activities.
Dr. Nilda Cosco is a Research Associate Professor and an Education Specialist who is concerned with the impact of outdoor and built environments on the well being of children and their families.
Robert W. Crawford had a long and distinguished career in park and recreation and was recognized as one of the greatest leaders in the field. He was influential in transforming the way cities and residents viewed parks.
In 1903, Binney & Smith, Inc. introduced crayons in 16 different colors made from synthetic, non-toxic pigments. For over a 100 years, Binney & Smith, Inc. products were commonly known as Crayola products worldwide. Only in 2007 did the Crayola name become official.
Starting in Minneapolis in 2005 by Todd Lehman, Cre8Play introduced creativity in designing commercial playgrounds with nature themed play structures and custom built designs.
The maximum fall height from which a life threatening head injury would not be expect to occur is defined as critical height. ASTM F1292 uses critical height to assess impact attenuation of playground surfacing. The testing for critical height is typically done in a laboratory, however, testing may...
The game of Croquet is played by hitting a ball through a series of wire hoops with a mallet. As a fun backyard activity for children and adults alike, this game has been popular in the United States since its introduction in the mid-1800s.
Crush or shear hazards could cause the user to have the following injuries: "contusion, laceration, abrasion, amputation or fracture during the use of playground equipment." Crush and shear hazards are points found in places where parts move against each other or a fixed part.
Dr. Henry S. Curtis was a public supporter of play and the playground movement. He felt that, "Play is our education in the spirit of joyousness, but it has much to do, not merely with the joyousness of childhood, but with the joyousness and optimism of all after life (adulthood)."