The children's game of hopscotch has been a popular playground activity for years. With the basic idea of not treading on lines, variations of the game are played around the world. The English name refers to hopping over the "scotch," which is a line or scratch in the ground. Lines are drawn in a variety of patterns of squares for the children to hop in with a particular order determined.
Loose parts are objects and materials that children can move, manipulate, control, and change within their play. With endless possibilities of play, they provide a high level of creativity and choice and develop children's imagination. Children often prefer playing with boxes, sticks, rocks, water, sand, and ropes that can be manipulated in whatever way they choose over traditional toys that have limited flexibility and play value.
Peer pressure occurs when an individual experiences persuasion to participate in the same activities as those in their peer group, or to adopt similar values, beliefs, and goals as the group. For a child, their peer group is usually, but not always, of the same age group.
The Hurried Child: growing up too fast too soon was written by David Elkind, Ph.D. The author calls attention to the crippling effects of hurrying children through life and blurring the boundaries of what is age-appropriate for them by expecting too much of them too soon forcing them to grow up too fast.
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who was born in 1896 in Belorussia, now known as Belarus. He received a law degree from the University of Moscow but also studied literature, linguistics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and the arts. Vygotsky developed the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).
Playwork is the support given by adults in an unobtrusive way of children's open-ended, creative free play. During a play session, Playworkers are available to assist a child if needed, but strive to be as inconspicuous as possible to allow the children to direct their own play.