The formal operational stage is the last of four stages proposed by Jean Piaget to describe the cognitive development of infants, children, and adolescents. The formal operational stage occurs with children from 12 years into adulthood.
The specialized movement phase typically begins around age seven when children begin to develop a keen interest in sports. Proper development of fundamental movement skills combined with more precise movement skills are necessary to be able to efficiently develop specialized movement skills.
The Science of Play: How to Build Playgrounds That Enhance Children’s Development was written by Susan G. Solomon. The book uses recent data from the behavioral sciences to demonstrate how to design innovative, multifunctional spaces to allow children to take risks, experience failure but also have a chance to master difficult tasks, learn to plan and solve problems, exercise self-control, and develop friendships.
When studying play development in young children, parallel play is a description of children playing side by side, but not interacting with each other to continue their play.
Seasons of Play: Natural Environments of Wonder was written by Rusty Keeler and published by Gryphon House, Inc. in 2016. The book contains over 200 photographs of the natural outdoor environments of three home-based preschools.
Joint attention occurs between two people who share an interest in an object or an event and there is an understanding between the two that they are both interested in the same object or event. Young children’s ability to engage others and communicate socially using non-verbal cues such as pointing, smiling, and eye contact is crucial to the development of social and language skills.