Aldo van Eyck was born in the Netherlands and educated in England. At that time, the only existing play spaces were private and only for the wealthy. Aldo began designing playgrounds at 28 and over the 30 years that he designed playgrounds, more than 700 of his playgrounds were established in Amsterdam and echoes of his designs were being used throughout the Netherlands.
Calvert Vaux was an architect and park planner, who is most known for his work in the creation of Central Park in New York City and Prospect Park in Brooklyn in the 1800s. His chosen title, “landscape architect,” evolved from his strong emphasis on the part nature played in his designs. In his own words, he felt “Nature first and 2d and 3d – Architecture after a while” when creating a park setting.
The vestibular system is the parts of the brain and inner ear that process the sensory information involved with controlling eye movements and balance. The receptors located within the inner ear respond to gravity and detect motion and change of head position. They interpret speed and direction of movement, relationship to gravity, and impact balance, posture, and bilateral coordination.
Jill Vialet co-founded the Museum of Children's Art and, more recently, founded Playworks, a recess and after school physical activity program. She has a conviction that "play is a precious commodity," she declares, "When recess is bad, it infects the entire school day."
Visual perception is the ability to interpret and understand the information that comes through the eyes as a response to the light that shines in them. It is a dynamic process that identifies, organizes, interprets, and understands what is seen. It integrates sensory and motor information generated by the brain and body to derive meaning from it and direct movement.
The International Play Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) launched the Voice of Play Initiative in 2006 to educate the general public concerning the benefits of children's play and playgrounds. Through the Voice of Play website, IPEMA communicates research findings that measure the "cognitive, social, emotional, and physical benefits of outdoor free play."
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Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who was born in 1896 in Belorussia, now known as Belarus. He received a law degree from the University of Moscow but also studied literature, linguistics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and the arts. Vygotsky developed the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).