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Children move through a developmental progression in the acquisition of motor skills. There are four phases of motor development: the reflexive movement phase, the rudimentary movement phase, the fundamental movement phase, and the specialized movement phase. The fundamental movement phase occurs between the ages of 2 and 7 as children gain control over their gross motor and fine motor skills.
The formal operational stage is the last of four stages proposed by Jean Piaget to describe the cognitive development of infants, children, and adolescents. The formal operational stage occurs with children from 12 years into adulthood. Emerging abstract thought and hypothetical reasoning mark this stage of cognitive development.
Emotional development refers to the ability to recognize, express, and manage feelings at different stages of life and to have empathy for the feelings of others. Emotional development is largely affected by relationships with parents, siblings, and peers.
Peer pressure occurs when an individual experiences persuasion to participate in the same activities as those in their peer group, or to adopt similar values, beliefs, and goals as the group. For a child, their peer group is usually, but not always, of the same age group.


Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a social and educational reformer and writer in Europe during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He believed that society could best be changed by education and that reform began with assisting the individual students to help themselves.
Friedrich Froebel was truly a pioneer in early childhood education. He established a new type of school for three and four year old children in 1837, which he called a child's garden or kindergarten. Prior to this there had been no educational training for children under the age of seven.


Ernst Hermann was an American pioneer in recreation planning, industrial recreation, and playground administration during the first few decades of 1900. He also taught concerning play, playgrounds, and recreation at Harvard University and concerning the Swedish physical education system at the Sargent School of Physical Education in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Child-centered, play-based learning is a whole-child educational approach that promotes academic, socio-emotional, and cognitive development through free play, which can also involve guided play by an adult. In guided play, teachers enhance children's exploration and learning with helpful guidance while being careful not to be invasive in the children's play.
The hoop has been a popular children's toy for thousands of years, and the introduction of the Hula Hoop in 1958 by the Wham-O toy company has been documented by sociologists as one of the biggest fads ever to take hold in America and one of the most significant events of the time. Because of its enduring popularity, the Hula Hoop was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame in 1999.
Reflections of a Recreation Professional is an autobiography written by Robert Wilson Crawford and published by the National Recreation and Park Association in 1993. He had a long and distinguished career in park and recreation and was recognized as one of the greatest leaders in the field.
Children move through a developmental progression in the acquisition of motor skills. The reflexive movement phase ranges from birth to about 1 year. Reflexes are involuntary movements, and through this reflex activity the infant gains information about his immediate surroundings.