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Children move through a developmental progression in the acquisition of motor skills. There are four phases of motor development: the reflexive movement phase, the rudimentary movement phase, the fundamental movement phase, and the specialized movement phase. The fundamental movement phase occurs between the ages of 2 and 7 as children gain control over their gross motor and fine motor skills.
The formal operational stage is the last of four stages proposed by Jean Piaget to describe the cognitive development of infants, children, and adolescents. The formal operational stage occurs with children from 12 years into adulthood. Emerging abstract thought and hypothetical reasoning mark this stage of cognitive development.
Emotional development refers to the ability to recognize, express, and manage feelings at different stages of life and to have empathy for the feelings of others. Emotional development is largely affected by relationships with parents, siblings, and peers.
Peer pressure occurs when an individual experiences persuasion to participate in the same activities as those in their peer group, or to adopt similar values, beliefs, and goals as the group. For a child, their peer group is usually, but not always, of the same age group.


Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a social and educational reformer and writer in Europe during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He believed that society could best be changed by education and that reform began with assisting the individual students to help themselves.
Friedrich Froebel was truly a pioneer in early childhood education. He established a new type of school for three and four year old children in 1837, which he called a child's garden or kindergarten. Prior to this there had been no educational training for children under the age of seven.


Rough and tumble play has been defined as physically vigorous behaviors, such as chase and play fighting, that are accompanied by positive feelings between the players. Rough and tumble play allows a child to understand the limits of their own strength and discover what other children will and won't allow them to do.
Red Rover is a classic outdoor neighborhood and playground game that children have played for years. The game is made up of two teams of children standing at least 20 to 30 feet apart, who form two lines facing each other by holding hands. The object of the game is to capture players from the other team.
The preoperational stage is the second of four stages proposed by Jean Piaget to describe the cognitive development of infants, children, and adolescents. The preoperational stage (ages 2-7) moves from toddlerhood through early childhood.
Written by British play advocate Tim Gill, No Fear: Growing up in a risk averse society, questions society's trend to increasingly try to eliminate risks in children's everyday lives based on perceived fears for their safety.
Robert W. Crawford had a long and distinguished career in park and recreation and was recognized as one of the greatest leaders in the field. He was influential in transforming the way cities and residents viewed parks.