Zeager playground surfaces came about initially because of the wasted wood by-products in the sawmill, which the Zeager family started in 1967. In order to make use of this wasted bark and scraps that couldn’t be used for lumber, they began to manufacture landscaping mulch in the 1970s. By the late 1970s, the Zeager Brothers were producing engineered wood fiber, which was being used in arenas and on horse training tracks. In the mid-1980s this engineered wood fiber was accepted as a good surfacing material for playgrounds because of its impact attenuating qualities and natural look.
The zone of proximal development is a concept developed by social cognitive theorist and psychologist Lev Vygotsky. His famous definition is “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers.” In other words, the zone of proximal development is the area where the child cannot solve a problem alone, but can solve it successfully under the guidance or collaboration with an adult or more advanced peer.1
1. Zhai, Zilong and Rob Kim. “Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development.” University of British Columbia ETEC 510.
Zoos have long been a recreational attraction for children. Originally described as park-like places where animals were kept in cages or large enclosures for public exhibition, they were known as zoological gardens or menageries.1
Today’s zoos offer a wide range of design from the small city parks that have animals in cages to large safari parks that allow the animals to roam in more realistic natural settings. Most good zoos describe their missions as recreation, education, conservation, and research.2
1. “Zoo.” Dictionary.com. < http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/zoo > 20 May 2011.
2. “Recreation.” Good Zoos. < http://www.goodzoos.com/recreate.htm > 20 May 2011.