Aldo van Eyck, who was born in the Netherlands and educated in England, started working for the Department of City Development at Amsterdam Public Works in 1947 when he was 28 years old. World War II was over and Amsterdam was largely dysfunctional with little available housing for families with children, even less for the coming postwar baby boom children. For Amsterdam's children, the only existing play spaces were private and only for the wealthy.
The vestibular system is the parts of the brain and inner ear that process the sensory information involved with controlling eye movements and balance.1 The receptors located within the inner ear respond to gravity and detect motion and change of head position. They interpret speed and direction of movement, relationship to gravity, and impact balance, posture, and bilateral coordination.2
As a social entrepreneur, Jill Vialet co-founded the Museum of Children's Art (MOCHA) in Oakland, California and, more recently, founded Playworks, a recess and after school physical activity program. With the conviction that “play is a precious commodity,”1 she declares, “When recess is bad, it infects the entire school day. But a vibrant recess is like grease for a school's gears. It makes everything else go more smoothly.”2
1. Tobias, Rachel. “Jill Vialet: Making Play Work.” It Magazine. < http://www.itmagazine.net/stories/spotlight-stories/category_innovators/jill-vialet-social-entrepreneur-founder-of-playworks/ > 29 Nov. 2011.
2. Vialet, Jill. “Why Your Kids Need Recess.” Forbes. 22 June 2010.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret and understand the information that comes through the eyes as a response to the light that shines in them. It is a dynamic process that identifies, organizes, interprets, and understands what is seen. It integrates sensory and motor information generated by the brain and body to derive meaning from it and direct movement.1
The International Play Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) launched the Voice of Play Initiative in 2006 to educate the general public concerning the benefits of children's play and playgrounds.
As a nonprofit, trade organization, IPEMA was formed in 1995 to provide third-party validation of compliance to the safety standards of the ASTM International (ASTM) F1487. They have also been instrumental in fostering communication between the manufacturers in the playground industry and in promoting the quality and quantity of play opportunities and playground environments in general.
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who was born in 1896 in Belorussia, now known as Belarus. He received a law degree from the University of Moscow but also studied literature, linguistics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and the arts. After graduation he returned to his hometown of Gomel to teach literature and philosophy. While there, Vygotsky set up a research laboratory at the Teacher’s College of Gomel and began to practice clinical psychology.1
1. “Vygotsky, Lev.” New World Encyclopedia. < http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Lev_Vygotsky > 25 Feb. 2011.