The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an agency that was created in l972 and began operations in 1973. The main purpose of this agency is to protect the public from unnecessary harm or death from consumer products. They have thousands of consumer products that are under their jurisdiction. This Agency is headed by five commissioners that are nominated by the President of the U.S. and then confirmed by the Senate. The President appoints a Chairman of the Agency, and the terms are for seven staggered years. These commissioners set policy for the CPSC.
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent federal regulatory agency that protects the public from unnecessary harm or death due to use of consumer products. One way they do this is to establish and enforce standards against dangerous consumer products. On August 14, 2008, Congress passed the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008. This law was necessary to “establish consumer product safety standards and other safety requirements for children's products and to reauthorize and modernize the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.”1
1. “An Act.” Public Law 110-314-Aug. 14, 2008. 122 Stat. 3016. Consumer Product Safety Commission. < http://www.cpsc.gov/cpsia.pdf > 22 June 2011.
The U.S. Public Interest Research Group (US PIRG) is a network of researchers, advocates, organizers, and students who act as a non-partisan consumer and environmental advocacy group. They are a national federation of state Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs) comprising a half million members. Working in state capitals and Washington, DC, they work to represent the general public against special interest groups concerning such topics as product safety, health issues, political corruption, and economic policies.
U.S. Toy Company is a family-owned company that specializes in novelty toys, seasonal decorations, stuffed animals, balloons, educational toys and teaching aids, and magic tricks and supplies. Seeking to “inspire learning, creativity, and fun” through the play value of their products, they market their products through retails stores, catalogs, and online websites.1
1. “News and Events.” U.S. Toy Company. < http://www.ustoyco.com/news.htm > 26 Jan. 2012.
New York City hosted the first Ultimate Block Party event on October 3, 2010. Described as a giant play date, 50,000 children and parents enjoyed a day at Central Park filled with fun activities designed to encourage learning through play. With a concern about play deprivation in children’s lives, the Ultimate Block Party was conceived with the idea of “shedding light on the crucial role of play in children’s development and education.”1
1. Kramer, Cassandra. “More than 50,000 turn out for Ultimate Block Party in NYC.” UDaily. University of Delaware. < http://www.udel.edu/udaily/2011/oct/golinkoff-play-ubp100810.html > 21 Sep. 2011.
Caroline Pratt, an American innovative educator who was part of the progressive movement in the early 1900s, is credited for developing wooden blocks, called unit blocks. They were similar to the blocks used by Friedrich Froebel in his kindergartens.1 Using play with physical objects as the basis for learning revolutionized early childhood education at that time, and unit blocks continue to be used in classrooms today.2
Playground design has evolved over the years to offer a wide array of equipment and features from traditional steel structures fixed in concrete and arranged in a row to contemporary structures with imaginative and innovative elements to engage children’s interest.1
1. Frost, Joe L. Play and Playscapes. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers Inc., 1992. pp. 133-134.
As a division of Universal Precast of Redding, California, UPC Parks specializes in linked climbing boulders, rope bridges, and rock and log stepping stones for children’s playgrounds. Dedicated to providing “active play, movement, exploration and challenge,” UPC Parks also offers customized playground designing, sculptured creatures, sand and water play features, and nature themed site furnishings.
Upper body strength is the ability of the body to exert a maximum force against an object external to the body in one maximum effort of the upper body muscles.1 Upper body strength is important for the everyday demands that are placed on the arms, shoulders, and back.2
1. Gallahue, David L. and Frances Cleland Donnelly. Developmental Physical Education for All Children. 4th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2003. p. 84.
2. “How To Build Upper Body Strength.” SolveYourProblem.com. < http://www.solveyourproblem.com/exercise-workouts/how_to_build_upper_body_strength.shtml > 10 Sep. 2010.
An urban area is an area with a high population density. Jersey City, New Jersey was reported to have the highest density of people per square mile at 13,043, according to the 2000 U. S. Census Bureau. American cities are rapidly growing with the top 50 metropolitan areas having a million or more people living in them. Americans living in urban areas currently number 79 percent of the population, and it is projected that by the year 2050 that percentage will rise to 90 percent. This demographic shift makes urban parks often the sole connection to the natural world for an increasing number of children who live in large cities.1
1. Lindstrom, Lane. “Keeping Urban Play In Your City.” Playground Magazine. Fall 2010. p. 10-11.
The US Play Coalition is a partnership to promote the value of play throughout one’s life. It consists of individuals and organizations that recognize play as a valuable and necessary part of a healthy and productive life. This very young organization is housed within Clemson University’s College of Health, Education and Human Development. The coalition is fortunate to have Clemson University and the College of Park, Recreation and Tourism Managements’ continuing support.
The 2011 Conference on the Value of Play was held February 6-9, 2011, at Clemson University’s Madren Conference Center. The US Play Coalition is a partnership to promote the value of play throughout one’s life. It consists of individuals and organizations that recognize play as a valuable and necessary part of a healthy and productive life.
The over 200 attendees represented a very diverse group including people from the medical profession, health, education, child development, kinesiology, architecture, parks and recreation, manufacturers, professional organizations, parents, advocacy groups, and many other proponents of play.
The US Play Coalition 2012 Conference on the Value of Play: Multi-Generational Actions and Strategies was held February 26-29, 2012, at Clemson University’s Madren Conference Center. The attendance increased by more than 25% to over 265 attendees coming from the United States, Canada, England, The Netherlands, Costa Rica, and China. The US Play Coalition is a partnership to promote the value of play throughout life.
The theme of the US Play Coalition 2013 Conference on the Value of Play was “Taking Action!” Held February 17-20, 2013, at the Madren Conference Center at Clemson University, over 300 attendees from around the world including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark, China, Costa Rica, Kenya, Burundi, and Tanzania assembled to share the latest research, trends, and news on the value of play.
This year’s conference included four keynote sessions to address the need to take action in supporting play: