Rachel's Challenge is a nonprofit organization that offers a series of school, business, and community programs and workshops modeled after the life of Rachel Scott, the first person killed in the 1999 Columbine High School shootings. Their mission is to “inspire, equip, and empower every person to create a permanent positive culture change in their school, business and community by starting a chain reaction of kindness and compassion.”1
Radio Flyer Inc. is one of the oldest national toy companies that is owned and operated by the original founding family. As makers of the little red wagon and subsequent models of wooden, steel, and plastic toy wagons and tricycles, Radio Flyer has been making coasting toys “for every girl and boy” since 1917.1
1. “Radio Flyer Wagon.” National Toy Hall of Fame. < http://www.toyhalloffame.org/toys/radio-flyer-wagon > 11 Nov. 2011.
Rainbow Crafts Company created, manufactured, and marketed Play-Doh, an elastic, reusable modeling clay. Though they existed only eight years and manufactured only Play-Doh, their product is now played with by children in 75 countries worldwide.1
1. “Play-Doh History.” The Great Idea Finder. < http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/playdoh.htm > 13 July 2012.
The Josephine D. Randall Junior Museum, known as the Randall Museum, is an interactive art and science museum that is run by the San Francisco Recreation and Park Department. Located on 16 acres that overlook San Francisco, they strive to inspire creativity, curiosity, and appreciation of the world cultures and environment.1
Early in the twentieth century, Josephine D. Randall was one of the first women to direct a municipal playground department and a major recreation department. Over twenty five years she led the San Francisco Recreation Department from inception to being a national noteworthy example of quality. Josephine was the first woman to become a Fellow of the American Recreation Society.1 She also received an honorary Doctorate from the University of California in 1948.2
1. Butler, George D. Pioneers in Public Recreation. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing Co., 1965. p. 152.
2. “Randall Museum History.” Randall Museum. < http://www.randallmuseum.org/History.aspx > 6 July 2012.
Recess for children is typically enjoyed outdoors and has been defined as a break period from the relatively inactive routine of the classroom. Traditionally, recess has been loosely structured and has allowed children to freely choose their activities and playmates on the school playground. Recesses usually last 10 to 20 minutes, and most children choose vigorous activities, whether playing tag, climbing on playground equipment, or playing games with balls, jump ropes, and other equipment.1
1. Gallahue, David L. and Frances Cleland Donnelly. Developmental Physical Education for All Children. 4th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2003. pp. 352-353.
Recreation is defined in the dictionary as a refreshment by means of some pastime, diversion, exercise, or other activity that results in relaxation and enjoyment.1 Research has shown that recreation improves the quality of life for individuals, raising their overall satisfaction with life. It can also help counteract stress and contribute to an individual’s health and wellness.2
Recreation Creations, Inc. (RCI) was originally incorporated under the name of Quality Industries, Inc. in 1974. Curt Shaneour, who had already been in the playground industry, established Quality Industries as a Shane Group subsidiary that produced a “standard line of commercial playground and site and park amenities.”1
1. Talbot, Pete. Personal email to Playground Professionals. 17 Jan. 2001.
Recreation Management is a monthly magazine published by CAB Communications of Palatine, Illinois. The magazine was created in the fall of 1999 by publisher Chris Belbin with the aim of providing facility managers of recreation, sports, and fitness facilities current information on products, ideas, issues, and trends in the recreation market.1
1. Tipping, Emily. Personal correspondence to Playground Professionals. 3 April 2012
Red Rover is a classic outdoor neighborhood and playground game that children have played for years. No equipment is required and it is most appropriate for elementary school children. However, with the increasing concern for children’s safety, the game has been deemed too rough for children by some and has been banned because of the risk of injury on many school playgrounds.1
1. “Red Rover: A Traditional Favorite Outdoor Game.” About.com. < http://grandparents.about.com/od/projectsactivities/qt/Red_Rover.htm > 12 Oct. 2011.
The Red Swing Project is the result of a University of Texas School of Architecture assignment as an urban intervention within the city of Austin, Texas. In February of 2007, one student began to anonymously hang red swings in public places to infuse a sense of playfulness into the urban environment. The assignment took on the feel of a science experiment as reactions to the red swings were observed.1
1. “About.” Red Swing Project. <http://www.redswingproject.org/?page_id=17> 18 March 2011.
Restore Hockey is a nonprofit organization dedicated to making the sport of hockey financially accessible to children through the recycling of hockey equipment, financial donations for new equipment packages, partnerships with businesses and leagues, and the proceeds from their Pro Shop. As hockey is the most expensive of the major North American sports, their goal is to provide the equipment so all children have a “chance to fall in love with the game.”1
1. “Recycle the Game.” Restore Hockey – A Division of Restore Sports, Inc. < http://www.restorehockey.org/page/show/266503-recycle-the-game > 18 Jan. 2012.
Right to Play began as an idea of the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee in 1992. They organized the Olympic Aid committee in preparation of the 1994 Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer, Norway. Specific Olympic athletes were chosen to be Ambassadors of Olympic Aid to raise money for projects in war zones or areas of distress. Projects included building a hospital in Sarajevo, assisting refugees in Afghanistan, supporting a mother/child program in Guatemala, building schools in Eritrea, and developing a support program for children with disabilities in Lebanon.1
1. “History.” Right to Play. < http://www.righttoplay.com/canada/about-us/Pages/History.aspx > 7 July 2011.
Dr. James H. Rimmer is a researcher who has had a long career in developing and directing health promotion programs for people with disabilities. As an author and professor, he has written on various subjects relating to health promotion, physical activity, secondary conditions, and disability,1 and he has been characterized as “the nation's leading voice on physical activity and disability.”2
1. “James H. Rimmer, PhD.” UIC Institute for Health Research and Policy. < http://www.ihrp.uic.edu/researcher/james-h-rimmer-phd > 14 Dec. 2011.
2. Shepard, Bob. “Rimmer to lead joint health promotion-rehabilitation science research.” UAB News. 14 Dec. 2011.
Children encounter risks on a daily basis and are engaged in an intense learning process about life’s risks and uncertainties.1 Risk involves the chance of an adverse outcome, which could result in injury. Minor scrapes and bruises are a natural result of the very nature of play.
1. Christensen, Pia and Miguel Romero Mikkelsen. “Jumping off and being careful: children’s strategies of risk management in everyday life.” Sociology of Health & Illness. Vol. 30 No. 1 2008. TS-Si.org. < http://ts-si.org/soc-&-psych/2816-childrens-risk-taking-plumbs-strengths-and-limits-of-their-bodies.html > 18 Oct. 2010.
Rock climbing is a fun and challenging activity for children that can be enjoyed on natural rock features and on artificial climbing walls. Climbing walls are seen as a good way for children to begin climbing, because they offer a safe environment for learning the techniques of rock climbing before they attempt the challenges of mountain and rock climbing outdoors with their families.1
Rock-Op Climbing Boulders designs, cuts, delivers, and installs climbing boulders for playgrounds and water play spaces. These sandstone boulders are customized for different levels of climbing abilities, space requirements, and desired added playground features. Rand Myrick founded Rock-Op to “create an environmentally friendly way for people to appreciate the authentic art of climbing in any setting or location.”1
RockCraft Designs was incorporated in 2002, when Ed Fischer, a risk management expert, and Ken Crozier of Crozier Agencies, a distributor of playground structures in Canada, formed a partnership. With a head office in Winnipeg, Canada, and a design studio in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, RockCraft Designs offers two kinds of products: climbing boulders and poolside climbing walls. Ed and Ken incorporate the three principles of safety, climbability, and aesthetics in all of their designs, with Ed inspecting for safety on all finished products.
Rockwerx is a company based in central Massachusetts that designs, manufactures, and installs climbing walls, whose goal is “to build really cool climbing walls and have a great time doing it.”1 Cort Gariepy, CEO of Rockwerx, began climbing at a Boy Scout Ranch in New Mexico during the summer of 1980. Having been raised in Massachusetts where rock formations are not so widely available, Cort fell in love with the challenge and adventure that climbing offered.
1. “Rockwerx – A History.” Rockwerx. < http://www.rockwerxclimbing.com/4440.xml > 18 Aug. 2011.
James Edward Rogers was a sports and recreation teacher, leader, and director in the early 1900s. Building on these experiences he later became a community organizer and public speaker on recreation and physical education issues. A peer characterized him thusly, “He typified the early, zealous recreation barnstormer. Recreation was a cause in which he believed wholeheartedly, unflaggingly, constantly.”1
1. Butler, George D. Pioneers in Public Recreation. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing Company, 1965. p. 120.
When a child engages in make-believe and pretend play, he takes on a role of someone else, imitating actions and speech from earlier observed situations and incorporating them into his play. When other children join in the play, it is called sociodramatic play as they interact socially in their imaginative play.1
1. Frost, Joe L. Play and Playscapes. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers Inc., 1992. p. 81.
Rough and tumble play has been defined as physically vigorous behaviors, such as chase and play fighting, that are accompanied by positive feelings between the players. This play type was first named by anthropologist Karl Groos in his books “Play of Animals” (1898) and “Play of Man” (1901).1
1. Jarvis, Pam. “ʽRough and Tumble’ Play: Lessons in Life.” Evolutionary Psychology. < http://www.epjournal.net/filestore/ep043303462.pdf > 10 Nov. 2010.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an 18th century political philosopher, education reformist, author, tutor, and composer. His ideas had an impact on political thought and practice, the emerging European romanticism movement, the development of the popular novel, and the discovery approach to education. He furthered John Locke's radical beliefs that the child is naturally good, in fact Rousseau believed it was “possible to preserve the 'original perfect nature' of the child” through a child-centered, individually structured education.1
1. Doyle, Michele Erina and Mark K. Smith. “Jean-Jacques Rousseau on Nature, Wholeness and Education.” The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. < http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm > 30 Jan. 2013.