A fast growing youth sports franchise, i9 Sports offers youth sports leagues, camps, clinics, and after school programs for children ages 3-14. The company name is based on its nine core principles: Imaginative, Innovative, Interactive, Integrity, Impassioned, Inspirational, Instructional, Insightful, and Inclusive. i9 Sports promotes “having fun, playing safe, and getting active in a healthy competitive environment while rewarding the value of good sportsmanship, leadership, and teamwork skills.”1
A favorite winter pastime of children through the years has been ice skating. Once enjoyed primarily as a fun recreational activity on a frozen lake or river, ice skating has also developed into competitive events, such as speed skating, figure skating, and ice hockey.
Imagination Playground, a company based in New York City, markets loose parts designed by David Rockwell that encourage child-directed, unstructured free play. David, a father of two small children and the CEO of the Rockwell Group architecture firm, began thinking of playground designs in 2004 after finishing some post 9/11 projects in lower Manhattan. Having just read Susan Solomon's American Playgrounds, Revitalizing Community Space and being influenced by Louis Kahn and Isamu Noguchi's playground design for Riverside Park, David was interested in designing a playground that would not only foster gross motor skills, but also facilitate creativity, stimulate mental development, and encourage collaboration between children.1
Impact attenuation of playground surfacing material is the measure of its shock absorbing properties. The shock absorbing properties are measured by dropping an instrumented metal headform onto the surface and recording the force of impact and the time of deceleration. The specifications for impact attenuation are found in ASTM International Standard F1292, “Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment.”1
1. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), “Public Playground Safety Handbook, 2010, Section 2.4, p. 8.
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child states in Article 31: “Children have the right to relax and play, and to join in a wide range of cultural, artistic and other recreational activities.” The right to play applies to all children regardless of their race, religion, or abilities.1
1. “FACT SHEET: A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child.” UNICEF. < http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf > 8 July 2011.
Playground inspectors use a wide array of gauges and tools in their inspections to be sure playgrounds meet the safety specifications detailed in the appropriate ASTM International (ASTM) Standards and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Public Playground Safety Handbook.
Playground installers are the individuals who assemble and build playgrounds. Installers work for contractors, the companies that contract with the owner to construct the playground. There are a wide variety of chores that must be performed for a successful playground build. A playground construction project may include excavation, concrete work, drainage systems, installation of the playground equipment, and resilient surfacing work.
Interactive play environments involve a combination of elements that interact with each other as children play. Natural materials, such as sand and water, allow for hands-on, active manipulation that enhances learning as well as the play experience.1 Playing outdoors offers a rich variety of play opportunities with natural elements, such as plants, trees, flowers, dirt, mud, animals, and insects.
1. Frost, Joe L., Pei-San Brown, John A. Sutterby, Candra D. Thornton. The Developmental Benefits of Playgrounds Olney, MD: Association for Childhood Education International, 2004. p. 206.
The International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA) is an international trade association for all permanently sited amusement facilities such as amusement and theme parks, family entertainment centers, museums and science centers, zoos and aquariums, water parks and resorts, casinos, and the amusement industry manufacturers and suppliers.1 They are an industry resource for improving efficiency, marketing, safety, and profitability as well as being a united advocate with local, national, and international media and government officials.
The National Museum of Play in Rochester, New York, later known as The Strong, created the International Center for the History of Electronic Games (ICHEG) in 2009. The ICHEG collects, studies, and interprets how video games and electronic games affect the ways people play, learn, and connect across cultural and geographical boundaries.1 They do this through their collections of artifacts, their interactive exhibits, a weekly blog, and publishing articles and reviews in the American Journal of Play.
1. “ICHEG Library and Archival Collections.” Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play. < http://www.libraryandarchivesofplay.org/collections/icheg-library-archival > 5 April 2011.
The International Council of Toy Industries (ICTI) is a not-for-profit worldwide toy industry association. They are committed to facilitate the exchange of information on toy industry issues, to promote universal toy safety standards, to reduce or eliminate trade barriers, and to advance manufacturing programs that address fair and lawful employment practices, workplace safety, and environmental concerns.1
1. “What is ICTI?” ICTI, International Council of Toy Industries. < http://www.toy-icti.org/about/whatis.html > 21 March 2012.
The International Journal of Play is an inter-disciplinary publication that focuses on all facets of play. It is published by Routledge, a distinguished publisher of leading educational research since 1836.1 The first issue of the International Journal of Play was released in March of 2012 with three issues published yearly.
International Mulch Company manufactures and retails 100% recycled rubber nuggets for playgrounds and rubber mulch for landscaping applications. They also offer related rubber products such as playground mats, timbers, landscaping borders, tree rings, splash blocks, and pavers.1
1. Sebastian, Mike. Personal correspondence to Playground Professionals. 17 Aug. 2012.
International Play Association USA is the national affiliate of International Play Association World, an interdisciplinary, international, non-governmental organization founded in Denmark in 1961. The membership of this organization is open to all persons or groups that endorse the United Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959) which state: “The child shall have full opportunity for play and recreation which should be directed to the same purposes as education; society and the public authorities shall endeavor to promote the enjoyment of this right.”1
1. United Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959), Article 7, Paragraph 3.
The International Play Association (IPA) World is a global non-government organization that protects, preserves, and promotes the child's fundamental human right to play. IPA World identifies negative trends affecting children's development worldwide and proposes remedies that involve better housing and community planning and meeting the children's needs for health, education, welfare, and leisure.1 It is particularly concerned where these needs are met through play.
1. “IPA Declaration of the Child's Right to Play.” IPA World. < http://ipaworld.org/category/about-us/ > 8 Sep. 2011.
Franco Aquila and Scott Forbes, who both have over 20 years experience in designing, manufacturing, and installing indoor playground equipment and outdoor playgrounds, joined forces to establish the International Play Company, Inc. (Iplayco) in 1999. By 2004 Iplayco was a part of the award-winning Diversaflow Corporation, and in 2002, Iplayco received the Business of the Year award from the Greater Langley Chamber of Commerce.1
1. “Corporate Governance.” International Play Company. < http://www.iplaycoltd.com/corporate_governance_directors.html > 11 Aug. 2010.
The International Play Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) was formed in 1995 by a group of twelve playground equipment manufacturers. IPEMA is a nonprofit, membership trade association with the goal of representing and promoting an open market for manufacturers of playground equipment and surfacing.1
The International Playground Safety Institute (IPSI) is a Limited Liability Company (LLC) incorporated in the State of Oregon. They are committed to the rights of children worldwide to play safely when using public parks and playgrounds. They have contracted with the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) to conduct the Certified Playground Safety Inspector (CPSI) Course and the National Certification Examination. Over 35,000 people involved in all aspects of playground operations have attend the CPSI Course. Over 8,000 certified playground safety inspectors are registered with NRPA.1
1. “Home.” International Playground Safety Institute. < http://www.internationalplaygroundsafetyinstitute.com/index.cfm > 10 Feb. 2011.
The International School Grounds Alliance (ISGA) is a global network of organizations and professionals dedicated to improving the design and utilization of school grounds in order to enrich children's learning and play. They believe that “school grounds are crucial childhood landscapes, both in terms of the considerable time spent there and the messages to children (both explicit and implicit) that come from their design and care.”1
1. “New international group forms to address an increasingly sedentary and risk-averse generation of children disconnected from nature.” International School Grounds Alliance. Press release April 24, 2012. < http://www.schoolyards.org/pdf/ISGA_PressRelease_4-24-12.pdf > 21 May 2012.
The International Toy Library Association is an association of toy library associations and individuals from around the world who serve children by giving them opportunities to experience play at their homes by lending toys and games to them as well as offering shared play opportunities at their library facilities with other children.
In October of 1995, the International Play Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) was formed by a group of twelve playground equipment manufacturers. They saw the need for a trade organization that would provide third-party physical validation of compliance to the safety standards as outlined in the ASTM International (ASTM) F1487. Though these manufacturers were already working together under the auspices of the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA), that organization chose not to allow the new certification program due to liability concerns.
MaryLou Iverson formed The Iverson Associates in 1990 to provide risk consulting for playgrounds and play spaces. With a degree in Recreation Administration from Michigan State University and 20 years’ experience as Director of Parks and Recreation for cities in three different states, MaryLou, through The Iverson Associates, offers audits, inspections, staff trainings, design review, and project management.1
1. The Iverson Associates. <http://theiversonassociates.com/welcome2/> 1 Sep. 2011.