G. Stanley Hall was the leader in establishing psychology as a science and a profession in America in the late 19th century. He was also known as the “father of adolescence” for his scholarship, lectures, and writings concerning the importance of this time of childhood. Hall's resulting focus on the child study movement and educational reforms led him to identify play as the means “for making children and adolescents moral and strong.”1 Later in his life, Hall wrote concerning the economic, intellectual, and social isolation of the elderly.
1. “G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924) – Adolescence, Education, Boys, and Play.” StateUniversity. < http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2026/Hall-G-Stanley-1844-1924.html > 26 Nov. 2012.
The book Handcrafted Playgrounds – Designs You Can Build Yourself was written by M. Paul Friedberg, one of America’s leading designers and landscape architects. It was published in 1975 by Vintage Books, a division of Random House. The book is a sketchbook of designs based on the premises that anyone can build a playground and that the actual process of the building can be as important as the finished product.
Lee F. Hanmer, sometimes called an “Educational Missionary for Playgrounds,” was influential in the recreation and playground movement early in the 20th century.1 Known as a “kind, gentle, modest, friendly, understanding person,” Lee was an effective and industrious leader in organizations such as the Playground Association of America, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Boy Scouts of America, the Recreation Alliance, and the War Department Commission.2 He felt that playgrounds were of “the first importance, for the playground stands primarily for character building.”3
1. Butler, George D. Pioneers in Public Recreation. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing Company. 1965. p. 66.
The Hassenfeld brothers, Henry, Hilal, and Herman, as recent Polish emigrants in Providence, Rhode Island, began selling cloth leftovers in 1923. Three years later they founded Hassenfeld Brothers, Inc. with eight family members to manufacture pencil box covers from these cloth leftovers. By 1929, under Henry's direction, they employed 150 in the manufacture and sale of pencil boxes and cloth zipper pouches containing school supplies.
Head Injury Criteria is a measurement of the time duration of head deceleration during impact. A mathematical formula is used to derive a value known as Head Injury Criteria or HIC. The value of HIC with regard to the impact on a playground surface may not be more than 1000.1
1. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) publication 325-97, “Handbook for Public Playground Safety,” Section 4.1, pp. 3-4.
Head Start Body Start National Center for Physical Development and Outdoor Play (HSBS) is dedicated to promoting physical activity, outdoor play, and healthy lifestyles for young children and their families. Funded by the Office of Head Start, HSBS is a joint project of the American Association of Physical Activity and Recreation (AAPAR) and the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE).1 The AAPAR executive director Mariah Burton Nelson stated, “Through this partnership, almost a million children will receive not only a head start, but a body start, not only academic preparation but physical preparation.”2
1. Almeras, Bethe. Email to Playground Professionals. 23 Feb. 2011.
The World Health Organization has defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”1 Health has many determining factors, such as social, economic, and physical environment as well as the person’s individual characteristics and behaviors. Where a person lives, the state of the environment, genetics, income and educational levels, and relationships with friends and family all impact health.2
1. “WHO definition of Health.” World Health Organization. < http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/ > 1 Oct. 2010.
2. “The determinants of health.” World Health Organization. < http://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en/ > 1 Oct. 2010.
Health-E-tips Inc. is dedicated to reducing obesity and disease in the young and the old through “bite-sized” tools that make healthy choices a daily habit. Believing that prevention is the best cure, the company promotes the philosophy that the key to healthy living is good nutrition, daily activity, and a knowledge of health issues.1 Additionally they advocate a balanced and moderate approach that encourages patience, recognizing that “neither your mind nor your body is designed to change overnight.”2
Healthy Kids Challenge (HKC) supports schools and communities in educating kids and their families to “Eat, Move, and Enjoy a Healthy Balance.”1 Led by registered, licensed dietitians, this nonprofit organization utilizes school curriculum, workshops, presentations, events, and distance assistance tools, such as their website and newsletters. Their focus is on making healthy eating and active play practices become attractive, simple, and fun for kids.2
1. “How HKC Works to Help Kids.” Healthy Kids Challenge. < http://www.healthykidschallenge.com/about-us/how-hkc-works > 27 Oct. 2011.
Healthy Parks Healthy People US is a National Park Service initiative that is a “holistic approach to promoting the health and well-being of people and the sustainability of the planet.”1 The initiative supports the major health roles that national, state, and local parks play in reducing our society's incidents of heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Healthy Parks Healthy People US also seeks to partner with business innovators, healthcare leaders, scientists, foundations, and advocacy organizations to achieve the reintegration of human, environmental, and ecological health.
1. “Welcome.” Healthy Parks Healthy People US. < http://www.nps.gov/public_health/hp/hphp.htm > 15 Nov. 2011.
The heart rate is the number of rhythmic contractions, beats per minute (bpm), of the heart. This rate is used as a measure of cardiac activity. The normal heart rate should be strong and regular without any missed beats.1 Measuring heart rate is an effective way to determine the overall fitness of a person as well as the presence of any medical concerns.
Robert Heath was born in England, educated in Scotland, and worked in Australia before coming to the United States in 1968. While working as a commentator for equestrian events in the United Kingdom, Robert noticed how the shredded wood fiber in the training tracks and in the breeding sheds was “quiet and soft.”1 He decided to bring the idea to the United States.
Robert first refined the manufacturing process and in 1979 began developing the market for his Fibar Engineered Wood Fiber. Through his company, Fibar, Inc., Robert surfaced 60 training tracks over the next six years.
1. Merrill, Lynn. “Getting into the Grind: Innovations in Wood Processing.” WasteAge. < http://wasteage.com/mag/waste_getting_grind_innovations/ > 1 Sep. 1998.
Nearly 40 years ago, Gordon C. Henderson founded the Henderson Recreation Equipment, Ltd. in Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. Initially offering a steel square post playground called PlaySteel, the company has expanded to offer a PlaySteel line, a PlayWood line, a PlayTots line, Mighty Shades, Site Amenities, and Freestanding Play components, including the Geodes and the Orbis.1
The PlaySteel² is the updated original playground design with more component choices but the same 4” square 11 gauge Allied Flo-Coat galvanized steel-capped posts. The 46 ½” 12-gauge decks and components are bolted directly with their Bolt-N-Go connection system.
Teresa (Teri) Hendy earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Art and a Teacher's Certificate from Miami University in 1974. For the next four years she taught Art and Industrial Arts for grades K-8 in the Reading Community Schools of Reading, Ohio. This strong background in child development, education, and fine art has enhanced her ability to design outdoor children's learning environments in the playground industry.
Starting in 1983, Teri began consulting in the playground industry on a part time basis. In 1988 she started Site Masters Inc, a business owned by women based in Cincinnati, Ohio. As president and owner, Teri has been an active consultant on design and safety issues for schools, parks, and the courts for the past 20 years.
Ernst Hermann was an American pioneer in recreation planning, industrial recreation, and playground administration during the first few decades of 1900. He also taught concerning play, playgrounds, and recreation at Harvard University and concerning the Swedish physical education system at the Sargent School of Physical Education in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Peter Heseltine is a playground health and safety consultant and playground industry author in the United Kingdom. He began as a Playworker and a Community Play Development Officer for local government. From there he became a Regional Play Adviser for a national charity and then the editor of UK's first play magazine, Play Times.1
1. “CV – Peter Heseltine.” Private correspondence to Playground Professionals. 9 Sep. 2011.
As a pioneer in the American play movement, Dr. Clark W. Hetherington was a philosopher, teacher, and physical education administrator at the university, state, and national levels. Dr. Hetherington believed that “Play is the central element in the scheme of human nature that makes volition possible... Without play man is inconceivable; play makes volition and rational living possible. There is no meaning to the phrase 'mere play,' for play is the most important activity in life.”1
1. Hetherington, Clark Wilson. The Demonstration Play School of 1913. University of California Publications: Education, Vol. 5, No. 2. July 30, 1914. p. 247.
Playgrounds are intended to be fun, safe places to take children to visit and play. The National Playground Safety Institute (NPSI), a program developed under the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA), has identified twelve of the leading causes of injury on playgrounds known as “The Dirty Dozen.” These dangers include improper protective surfacing, inadequate use zones, and protrusion, entanglement, and entrapment hazards to name a few.1
1. The Dirty Dozen: Are they hiding in your child’s playground? Arlington, Virginia. National Recreation and Park Association.
The Highlights magazine is a children's publication dedicated to assisting them in acquiring basic skills and knowledge, developing the ability to think and reason, fostering creativity, encouraging sensitivity to others, and choosing high ideals as a way of living. They believe in having “Fun with a purpose” and in printing only the best material – the “highlights” - for children ages 6-12 years.
Patty Smith Hill (1868-1946) was a leader in the Kindergarten movement and an advocate of the value of free play in the education of young children. Although the theory and methods of Friedrich Froebel were accepted in most kindergartens at the time, Hill studied the work of other leading educators, such as G. Stanley Hall, John Dewey, and Francis W. Parker, and challenged the practice of following Froebel’s methods explicitly. Her work established the foundation for the modern kindergarten in America today.
Dr. Kathy Hirsh-Pasek believes the trend toward replacing play time for children with academic time is a national crisis. She declares, “The science is clear.” Play reduces stress, facilitates social development, improves working memory, develops self-control, and increases attention spans. Concerning play time, she has concluded that “failing to preserve it in the lives of children could be a disaster.”1
1. Barlett, Tom. “The Case for Play.” The Chronicle Review. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Feb. 20, 2011. < http://chronicle.com/article/The-Case-for-Play/126382/ > 19 Oct. 2011.
Paul Hogan, as a young man, served in the Massachusetts State Guard, the US Merchant Marines, and finally two years in the 11th Airborne Division. After military life, he began civilian life as a carpenter and eventually became partner in Hogan & Lynch Construction Company, Inc. in 1956. They specialized in small and complicated military contracts. In 1958, he volunteered at his children's nursery school and was assigned the playground, which he found decrepit and unsafe. This began Paul's interest in designing, constructing, and improving playgrounds.
Holgate Toys is known for their colorful, durable, and quality made hardwood children's toys. As a division of Pepperell Braiding Company, all Holgate Toys are manufactured in Pennsylvania, making them one of the few exclusively made-in-America toy companies.1
1. CBS News. “Finding Safe Toys.” CBS News. < http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-501083_162-3317774.html > 1 June 2012.
As a national non-profit organization, the Home Safety Council (HSC) is dedicated to preventing home-related injuries through educating the public. The Home Safety Council is a “leading source for home safety tips, checklists and information about home fire safety, falls prevention, poison prevention, water safety, child safety, disaster preparedness as well as many other home safety topics.”1 HSC utilizes innovative website technology, educational resources for teachers, policy makers, and corporations, partnerships with companies, and a network of volunteers to accomplish its goals.
The children’s game of hopscotch has been a popular playground activity for years. With the basic idea of not treading on lines, variations of the game are played around the world. The English name refers to hopping over the “scotch,” which is a line or scratch in the ground. Lines are drawn in a variety of patterns of squares for the children to hop in with a particular order determined.1
1. “Hopscotch.” Britannica Online Encyclopedia. < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/271606/hopscotch > 26 May 2011.
After extensive training through such polyurethane companies as Berleburger Shaumstoffwerk GmbH (BSW), the Poligras division of J.F. Adolf AG, and the Sportsbau Technique AG, Rolf Huber developed the Elastocrete Mats for athletic and playground surfaces in 1981. This was accomplished as a part of Sportsbau Canada Limited.
Benefiting from this training, beginning in 1984 Rolf and his team invented the Toro-Tan athletic and play systems, the Champ-Track running track system, and the Champ-Floor gymnasium system. These products evolved into the Everplay poured-in-place surfacing system, the Everplay Mat system, and the Champ-Track polyurethane systems for water play.1
1. Huber, Rolf. Email to Playground Professionals. 21 Jan. 2011.
Johan Huizinga was a Dutch historian who lived from 1872 to 1945. His book, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture, published in 1938, suggested the instinct for play as the central element in human culture and examined the role of play in law, war, science, poetry, philosophy, and art. He saw all human activities as playing where “…the great instinctive forces of civilized life have their origin: law and order, commerce and profit, craft and art, poetry, wisdom and science. All are rooted in the primaeval soil of play.”1
The hoop has been a popular children’s toy for thousands of years, and the introduction of the Hula Hoop in 1958 by the Wham-O toy company has been documented by sociologists as one of the biggest fads ever to take hold in America and one of the most significant events of the time.1 Because of its enduring popularity, the Hula Hoop was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame in 1999.2