Veteran elementary physical education teachers, Chris Tamborra and Mark Farnsworth, met at a seminar where they were both searching for a solution to “fix recess.”1 A year later, in 2003, Chris (teaching in Massachusetts) and Mark (teaching in Connecticut) collaborated to form the educational consulting firm 4 Great Physical Education.2
1. Tamborra Chris. “4 Great Physical Education.” Received by Playground Professionals on 27 July 2011.
2. Tamborra, Chris. “4 Great Physical Education Time Line.” Received by Playground Professionals on 26 July 2011.
FAO Schwarz is a retail toy store that offers “high end” quality and unique toys from all over the world and showcases them in an interactive and theatrical experience. This was the dream of Frederick August Otto Schwarz who said, “I have made toys my life study. It is a splendid issue, and aside from the commercial question, there is more solid satisfaction in dealing with childhood playthings, and in knowing the joy one is sending out into the hearts of the little ones, than in selling any other commodity in the world.”1
1. “Recognition.” FAO Schwarz. < http://www.fao.com/family/index.jsp?categoryId=4411978 > 14 Aug. 2012.
Fear is a distressing response to a perceived danger, whether real or imaginary.1 Physical responses to fear may result in an accelerated heart rate and breathing, sweaty hands, nausea, headaches, stomach aches, and nervous movements. Emotionally, children may become clingy, impulsive, or distracted, and they may suffer from disturbed sleep patterns.2
Fibar, Inc. was founded by Robert Heath in 1979 as a Wood Fiber supplier for equestrian training surfaces. In five years’ time, Fibar had surfaced over 600 horse-training facilities in the United States. In 1986, the idea of using wood fiber for under playgrounds was proposed and researched. After testing, Robert found that wood fiber was substantially better at cushioning children's falls than sand, grass, dirt, or gravel, which were the current "safety" surfaces in most places at the time.
Lee F. Hanmer, the Field Secretary of the Playground Association of America, wrote First Steps in Organizing Playgrounds to offer “helpful suggestions to committees and associations that are planning to begin or extend public playgrounds.”1 Published in 1908 by the Russell Sage Foundation, this 36 page booklet included ways to organize playgrounds; general information on playground sites, equipment, operations, and supervision; and the extensive playground organizing experience of Edith Darlington Ammon, the treasurer of the Pittsburgh Playground Association.2
1. Hanmer, Lee F. First Steps in Organizing Playgrounds. Charities Publication Committee, New York. 1908. p. 3.
2. Note: she is referenced as Mrs. Samuel Ammon in this booklet and as Mrs.
Herman G. Fisher, Irving L. Price, Irving's wife Margaret Evans Price, and Helen M. Schelle founded Fisher-Price in 1930 in East Aurora, New York. Their mission was to produce toys with “intrinsic play value, ingenuity, strong construction, good value for the money, and action.”1
Good physical condition is how fitness is measured. Being fit occurs through healthy habits which include exercise and nutrition.1 Being physically fit offers many benefits, such as, a healthy weight, strong muscles, bones, and joints, decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, better sleep, and a feeling of well-being.2
1. “Fitness.” Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. < http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fitness > 5 Aug. 2010.
2. “Motivating Kids to Be Active.” KidsHealth from Nemours. < http://kidshealth.org/parent/nutrition_fit/fitness/active_kids.html > 5 Aug. 2010.
FlagHouse, Inc. is a supplier of equipment and programs for physical education, sports, fitness, recreation, and special needs audiences through catalogs and e-commerce options. They are a family-run business whose motto is “The Solutions You Need. The Source You Trust.”1
Flexibility refers to the body’s ability to effectively bend and move without injury. Improving flexibility allows the body to increase the range of motion at a particular joint as well as improving bone, ligament, and joint stability. Similar to other physical motor skills, flexibility is an ongoing process rather than a static point of achievement, and the best way to keep the body flexible is to use it. Poor flexibility hinders performance in every other physical motor skill.1
Speeding down a snowy hill on a Flexible Flyer snow sled has been a winter activity enjoyed by children since the 1880s. The Flexible Flyer continued to be sold for over 100 years with little change from its basic design, and the iconic sled is still highly sought after by young and old alike.
ForeverLawn Inc. offers advanced simulated grass products to commercial and residential markets. Besides all around artificial turf, ForeverLawn creates innovative artificial turfs for specialty markets, such as playgrounds, splash parks, sports fields, golf greens, and kennel and boarding facilities.1
Four square has been a popular playground game for years. It has also been called box ball and Kings corners, and although there is little verified history of the game, it is thought to have been played in some form since the turn of the 20th century when it was mentioned in children’s books. Because it is a fast paced ball game that is easy to play with no time constraints, it has been a great game to play during recess.1
Free play is unstructured, voluntary, child-initiated activity that allows children to develop their imaginations while exploring and experiencing the world around them.1 It is the spontaneous play that comes naturally from children’s natural curiosity, love of discovery, and enthusiasm.2
1. “Why your child needs ‘free play’” Rediff.com. < http://in.rediff.com/getahead/2007/may/17child.htm > 16 Aug. 2010.
2. “Free Play” Hasbro.com. < http://www.hasbro.com/playdoh/en_US/freePlay.cfm > 16 Aug. 2010.
The blog, Free-Range Kids, is written by Lenore Skenazy, who was dubbed “America’s Worst Mom” by the media for allowing her 9-year-old son to ride the subway in New York City alone. What started as an opportunity for a child to face a challenge and experience some independence resulted in a blog, a book, and a movement.1
Freenotes Harmony Park is a company based in Durango, Colorado, that produces musical instruments suitable for outdoor playgrounds, schools, museums, hospitals, community gardens, and other outdoor settings. Freenotes are an ensemble of real musical instruments with distinct pure tones that blend into soothing sounds. These percussion instruments are xylophones, chimes, and marimbas that are perfectly tuned and make musical expression accessible to everyone. Everyone can play Freenotes, regardless of musical training, and anyone can step right into improvisational play.
The Fresh Air Fund is an independent, not-for-profit agency that organizes free summer experiences in the country for New York City children from low-income communities who often aren't allowed to play outside due to unsafe neighborhoods. Through volunteer host families, five different summer camp options, and weekend camping trips, children are given opportunities to broaden their experiences and give them a “breath of fresh air.”1
1. “More Than a 'Breath of Fresh Air'.” The Opinion Pages, The New York Times. < http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/28/opinion/more-than-a-breath-of-fresh-air.html?scp=1&sq=more%20than%20a%20breathe%20of%20fresh%20air&st=Search > 8 June 2012.
M. Paul Friedberg is a landscape architect who has influenced urban design of playgrounds, parks, plazas, and outdoor malls. He feels that urban designs are not for creating a break from the city life, rather they “engage the whirl of urban life and (are) unapologetically vital and active.” His designs accommodate recreation for different age groups, facilitate interaction between people in the community, and “enhance life by revealing beauty in the environment.”1
1. Randl, Chad. “Biography of M. Paul Friedberg.” The Cultural Landscape Foundation. <http://tclf.org/pioneer/m-paul-friedberg/biography-m-paul-friedberg> 28 March 2012.
The Frisbee is a plastic flying disc that has been enjoyed as a recreational toy for people of all ages, whether in the backyard, at the park, or on the beach. They are typically used as a game of catch with the Frisbee spinning through the air when thrown.
Friedrich Froebel was truly a pioneer in early childhood education. He established a new type of school for three and four year old children in 1837, which he called a child’s garden or kindergarten.1 Prior to this there had been no educational training for children under the age of seven. There was no recognition that young children were capable of learning social and intellectual skills.2
1. “Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) – Biography, Froebel’s Kindergarten Philosophy, The Kindergarten Curriculum, Diffusion of the Kindergarten.” Education Encyclopedia. StateUniversity.com. < http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1999/Froebel-Friedrich-1782-1852.html > 21 Dec. 2010.
The Frost Play Research Collection was dedicated in the spring of 2004 with the purpose of making available historical and contemporary research material for students and play scholars. The collection, awarded to the University of the Incarnate Word and periodically updated by teacher, researcher, and author, Dr. Joe L. Frost, is comprised of materials from his extensive research library and donated material. Support facilities and equipment are provided by UIW’s Mabee Library. The Collection is supported by the Joe and Betty Frost Endowment, and contributions by public and privategroups such as the International Play Equipment Manufacturer's Association (IPEMA).
This growing collection of play and related research materials includes:
Fuel Up to Play 60 is an initiative to empower youths to take action to improve nutrition and physical activity at their schools, which will improve their own health. The youth-led program is a joint venture of National Dairy Council (NDC) and the National Football League (NFL). Fuel Up to Play 60 is designed to address increasing childhood obesity, and recognizes that, “well-nourished kids tend to be better students, and physical activity supports learning.”1
1. “Fuel Up to Play 60 Guidebook.” Fuel Up to Play 60. < http://school.fueluptoplay60.com/documents/FUTP60_Guidebook.pdf > 14 Feb. 2012.
Functional play has been described as the first play of children. Beginning in infancy, as a child learns to control his actions and make things happen, he finds enjoyment in shaking a rattle, splashing in the bath, and dropping objects repeatedly from his high chair. These repetitive actions are slowly replaced by more complex forms of play, but functional play is enjoyed by children throughout their childhood as they discover new actions to master.1
Children move through a developmental progression in the acquisition of motor skills. There are four phases of motor development: the reflexive movement phase, the rudimentary movement phase, the fundamental movement phase, and the specialized movement phase.1
1. Gallahue, David L. and Frances Cleland Donnelly. Developmental Physical Education for All Children. 4th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2003. p. 62.