Eric Cohen, Mike Maccia, Scott Hunter-Smith, and Steve Conner founded the not-for-profit ‘nPlay Foundation in 2008.1 With combined experience in management, law, marketing, and advertising, they joined forces to establish “the professional athlete's foundation for the prevention of childhood obesity.”2
1. Kelly, Meg. “Back to the Future.” ‘nPlay Press. February 1, 2011. < http://www.healthyweightcommit.org/images/uploads/HWCF_nPLAY.pdf > 14 July 2011.
2. “Founders.” nPlay Foundation. < http://www.nplayfoundation.org/about-2/founders/ > 15 July 2011.
A World Fit For Kids! (WFIT) is a Los Angeles afterschool program which pairs quality physical activity with teaching healthy behaviors in order to reduce obesity, increase high school graduation rates, and prepare youth for the workforce. As a nonprofit organization they utilize their award winning mentoring model in disadvantaged communities in order to “give young people the training, tools and support they need to achieve their goals and lead fit and fulfilling lives.”1
1. “About Us – About Us.” A World Fit For Kids. < http://www.worldfitforkids.org/about/ > 24 July 2012.
Action for Healthy Kids is a nonprofit organization that is helping schools teach kids how to eat right, be active every day, and be ready to learn. They are also involved in combating childhood obesity and undernourishment.1
In 2002, U.S. Surgeon General Dr. David Satcher gave a public call to action to fight the epidemic of childhood obesity. In response, Action for Healthy Kids was formed by a small group of national associations, organizations, and individuals. These founding members were from the areas of nutrition, fitness, health, and education and were interested in creating healthy learning environments for children in the schools.
Active Living Research (ALR) was established in 2001 as a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). Their mandate is to “support research to identify environmental factors and policies that influence physical activity” with a special interest in reversing the rise of childhood obesity especially in youth of low-income and high-risk communities.1
1. “About Active Living Research.” Active Living Research. < http://www.activelivingresearch.org/about > 13 April 2011.
The Alliance for a Healthier Generation seeks to reduce childhood obesity by 2015 through empowering children to make healthy lifestyle choices. Realizing that in the United States 1 in 3 children between the ages of 2-19 are overweight or obese,1 they are employing a multi-directional approach by including homes, schools, doctor's offices, and communities in their programs.
1. “Childhood Obesity – An American Epidemic.” Alliance for a Healthier Generation. < http://www.healthiergeneration.org/about.aspx?id=3439 > 20 Jan. 2012.
The nonprofit Alliance for Childhood was formed in 1999 out of concern about children's declining health and well-being. Composed of educators, health professionals, and advocates for children, the Alliance “promotes policies and practices that support children's healthy development, love of learning, and joy in living.”1
1. “About Us.” Alliance for Childhood. <http://www.alllianceforchildhood.org/about_us> 27 Feb. 2011.
America Bikes is a coalition of seven biking organizations united to advocate for recognition of bicycling needs in the United States. The America Bikes Board of Directors includes a leader from each of the member organizations: the Adventure Cycling Association, the Alliance for Biking & Walking, the Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals, Bikes Belong Coalition, the International Mountain Bicycling Association, the League of American Bicyclists, and the National Center for Bicycling & Walking.1
1. “America Bikes Board of Directors.” America Bikes. < http://www.americabikes.org/about/board/ > 13 Nov. 2011.
America SCORES is an urban youth program that combines team-based soccer leagues, poetry appreciation and writing curricula, and youth-led civic service projects. Their goal is to “inspire urban youth to lead healthy lives, be engaged students, and have the confidence and character to make a difference in the world.” The coaches, teachers, and directors assist the youth to have positive experiences “on the field, in the classroom, and in the community.”1
1. “Overview.” America SCORES. < http://www.americascores.org/about-us/overview > 11 Feb. 2013.
America Walks is a nonprofit coalition of independent organizations dedicated to creating communities where walking is a safe and comfortable choice for all people to “work, study, shop, play, and pray.”1 The coalition supports local pedestrian advocacy groups, educates the public about the benefits of walking, and speaks as a collective, national voice for transforming America's transportation system.2
1. “America Walks: Strategic Campaign Plan 2011-2013.” America Walks. < http://americawalks.org/wp-content/upload/America-Walks.Strategic-Plan.Adopted.pdf > 28 Oct. 2011.
2. “What is America Walks?” America Walks. < http://americawalks.org/about/what-is-america-walks/ > 28 Oct. 2011.
The National Association of State Park Directors (NASPD) launched the America's State Parks alliance in 2009 to mobilize and educate the public and policy makers on the positive impact on public health and local and state economies that state parks offer. America’s State Parks is dedicated to advocating for the state parks in the fifty states and Puerto Rico.1 Representing nearly 8,000 state parks, which are visited more than 740 million times per year,2 America's State Parks also works with policy makers in Washington, D.C.
1. Wolfe, Tom. Email message to Playground Professionals. 11 Aug. 2011.
2. “About America's State Parks.” America's State Parks. < http://www.americasstateparks.org/about.php > 10 Aug. 2011.
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) was founded at Northwestern University in 1933 by seven orthopaedic surgeons in order to share orthopaedic knowledge. The name orthopaedics comes from the Greek root ortho (straight) and pais (child), because in the beginning the specialists treated children with spine and limb deformities. A bent tree that has been braced is the traditional symbol of orthopaedics. The AAOS mission statement is to “champion the interests of patients and advance the highest quality musculoskeletal health.”1
1. “Mission.” American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. < http://aaos.org/about/mission.asp > 3 Sept.
The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) is a national organization of over 20,000 professionals that provides support and assistance to professionals involved in physical education, recreation, fitness, sports and coaching, health education, and dance. AAHPERD is an alliance of five national associations, six district associations, and a research consortium.1
1. “Who We Are.” American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. < http://www.aahperd.org/about/ > 28 Feb. 2011.
The American Association of School Administrators (AASA) is a professional organization of educational leaders whose mission is to “support and develop effective school system leaders who are dedicated to the highest quality public education for all children.”1 With over half of their members serving as superintendents and more than one third administrators,2
1. “10-Year Study on the American School Superintendent Released.” American Association of School Administrators. < http://www.aasa.org/content.aspx?id=17280 > 3 Dec. 2012.
2. “AASA Partners.” American Association of School Administrators.
The American Camp Association (ACA) is a nonprofit organization with the mission of enriching the lives of children, youth, and adults through the camp experience. It is made up of camping professionals with a dedication to “preserve, promote, and improve the camp experience” for children, youth, and adults.1 They believe that organized camps provide lessons in character and skill development, healthy living, and community.
1. “About ACA.” American Camp Association. < http://www.acacamps.org/about/who-we-are > 3 Aug. 2012.
The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) began in 1899 with eleven members. With a mission “to lead, to educate, and to participate in the careful stewardship, wise planning, and artful design of our cultural and natural environments,”1 membership has grown to over 18,000 members in all 50 states, the U.S. territories, and over 40 countries around the world.2
1. “Our Mission.” American Society of Landscape Architects. < http://www.asla.org/AboutJoin.aspx > 17 Oct. 2011.
2. “Frequently Asked Questions.” American Society of Landscape Architects. < http://www.asla.org/FAQAnswer.aspx?CategoryTitle=%20About%20the%20American%20Society%20of%20Landscape%20Architects&Category=3146#DispID3116 > 17 Oct.
The American Specialty Toy Retailing Association (ASTRA) is a nonprofit trade association that provides leadership and resources to specialty toy manufacturers, independent retailers, specialty suppliers and service providers, and industry affiliates.1 They support toys which “focus on the features of play, rather than the features of the toy,”2 and in this way they fulfill their mission to “lead the way through play.”3
1. “Who We Are.” ASTRA. < http://www.astratoy.org/who-we-are.asp > 8 June 2012.
2. “Specialty Toy Industry Fact Sheet.” ASTRA. < http://www.astratoy.org/specialty-toy-industry-fact-sheet.asp > 8 June 2012.
3. “Mission.” ASTRA. < http://www.astratoy.org/mission.asp > 8 June 2012.
When Anne Douglas saw the deplorable conditions of the school playgrounds in the Los Angeles area, she knew that she had to do something to help. So, in an effort to revitalize the playgrounds, she, along with her husband Kirk, funded a $1 million contribution to the Anne and Kirk Douglas Playground Award. They started this grant program in 1997 with the help of Anita May Rosenstein through the Wilbur May Foundation, The Annenberg Foundation, and Richard Riordan, a former mayor of Los Angeles, through the Riordan Foundation. Together, they have restored and dedicated over 400 school playgrounds in the Los Angeles area.
The Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) is a nonprofit global organization that promotes and supports the education and development of children. They believe that every child in every nation should have access to quality education and this belief is highlighted in their tagline, “Bright futures for every child, every nation.”1 As a community of educators and child advocates, they utilize their shared knowledge, experience, and perspectives to evaluate and implement educational programs that will optimally enhance children's skills and abilities.
1. “About Us.” Association for Childhood Education International. < http://www.acei.org/about-us/about-us.html > 21 March 2012.
The Association of Children's Museums began in 1962 as the American Association of Youth Museums (AAYM), an informal gathering of directors of children's museums who met to discuss their common purposes, problems, and issues.1
1. “History: Evolution of the American Association of Youth Museums (AAYM) to the Association of Children's Museums (ACM).” Association of Children's Museums. < http://www.childrensmuseums.org/about/history.htm > 29 June 2011.
Many organizations and individuals have come together over the past 20 plus years because of a common interest in developing performance requirements for various types of public play equipment that will help reduce life threatening and permanent debilitating injuries to children from 6 months to 12 years of age. ASTM International (ASTM) has provided the opportunity for various interests to work together in a consensus based process to create industry best practice standards for the public good. It is a very open organization and welcomes anyone to join in the process. Each member has an opportunity to be as involved in these standards development processes as they choose.
The Atlanta Taskforce on Play (ATOP) is dedicated to educating people about the importance of play and to building more and better play spaces for the children of Atlanta, Georgia. They were formed in 2007 to satisfy one of the requirements for applying for KaBOOM!'s Playful City USA Award. Cynthia Gentry, a local artist and national play advocate, is the founding director.1
1. “Cynthia Gentry's Page.” PlayAtlanta. <http://playatlanta.ning.com/profile/lzjxti4mtoq8e> 30 Aug. 2011.
The Beyond Access program disseminates information on designing physically accessible and socially inclusive playgrounds for children of all abilities. They recognize that “no other activity in children's lives provides as much richness and experience as free play,” and yet “the typical playground may often be a place of failure for a child with a disability.” They believe the ideal playground “enables all children to use their individual strengths and abilities to engage in play independently and equally with their friends, siblings, and neighbors.”1
1. “Beyond Access.” Center for Persons with Disabilities. < http://www.cpdusu.org/projects/access/ > 14 June 2012.
The Boston Schoolyard Initiative (BSI) is a partnership with private and public organizations for the purpose of “transforming schoolyards into dynamic centers for recreation, learning and community life.”1 Believing that the condition of the school grounds indicated the health of that community, BSI seeks to involve the local neighborhoods to create inviting public spaces for recreation and learning in all the schoolyards of Boston.
1. “History.” Boston Schoolyard Initiative. < http://www.schoolyards.org/about.history.html > 21 May 2012.
As a young woman, Amy Jaffe Barzach was distressed as she watched a little girl in a wheelchair crying because she couldn't join the other children playing at the local playground. Shortly thereafter, Amy’s second child, baby Jonathan, was diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy. Jonathan passed away at the age of 9 months. She realized that if Jonathan had lived longer he would have been in a wheelchair, and she remembered the little girl crying because she could not join the others at the playground.
The Boys & Girls Clubs of America provide a safe and affordable place for young people to gather during non-school hours and during summer vacation months. They seek to assist all young people “to reach their full potential as productive, caring, responsible citizens.”1 Their core beliefs include providing hope, opportunity, character development, stable relationships with adult professionals, and a safe place to learn and grow.2
1. “Who We Are.” Boys & Girls Clubs of America. < http://www.bgca.org/newsevents/Pages/Media_Kit.aspx > 10 Oct. 2011.
2. “Our Mission.” Boys & Girls Clubs of America. < http://www.bgca.org/whoweare/Pages/Mission.aspx > 10 Oct. 2011.
As the “voice of brain injury,” the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) is the oldest and largest brain injury advocacy organization in the United States. Advocacy, research, and educating the public have been the primary focuses of the Brain Injury Association through the years.1 There are more than 40 chartered state affiliates and hundreds of local chapters and support groups in the nationwide network.2
1. “About Us.” Brain Injury Association of America. < http://www.biausa.org/About-Us/about-brain-injury-association.htm > 23 Feb. 2011.
2. “Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America.” Brain Injury Association of America. < http://www.biausa.org > 16 May 2011.
Strong National Museum of Play in Rochester, New York, now known as The Strong, officially named their library and archive holdings the Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play in 2009. With 130,000 volumes the library is “devoted to the intellectual, social, and cultural history of play.”1 They support the study of play through an interdisciplinary approach recognizing the “multifaceted and multigenerational scope of play.”2
1. “About.” Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play. < http://www.libraryandarchivesofplay.org/about > 4 April 2011.
2. “Collections.” Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play. < http://www.libraryandarchivesofplay.org/collections > 5 April 2011.
The California Roundtable on Recreation, Parks and Tourism is an independent and nonprofit organization formed to support both public and private programs for “quality, sustainable outdoor recreation” in California.1 Composed of representatives from public land agencies, outdoor recreation industries, recreation providers, educational institutions, private enterprises, tourism agencies, user groups, and environmental organizations, they have sought to create a “seamless recreational experience” for the outdoor user by coordinating their programs and resources.2
1. “Welcome to California Roundtable on Recreation, Parks and Tourism.” California Roundtable on Recreation, Parks and Tourism. < http://www.calroundtable.org/ > 2 April 2012.
Camp Fire USA is a national youth development organization that serves boys and girls, with an emphasis on school aged children. They include all children - regardless of race, gender, economic status, sexual orientation, or disability - in their mission to build “caring, confident youth and future leaders.”1
1. “Mission/Core Values.” Camp Fire USA. < http://www.campfireusa.org/Mission_and_Core_Values.aspx > 17 Feb. 2012.
Carter’s Kids is a nonprofit organization founded by Carter Oosterhouse. He is the host of HGTV’s Carter Can television show. The organization is dedicated to increasing children’s activity levels by building and developing community parks and playgrounds in their neighborhoods. His purpose is to promote activity, self-esteem, and nutrition in fighting childhood obesity. He actively involves the local children in the construction of the play area so they can gain a sense of ownership and care for a place they helped build.1
1. “Building Up America’s Kids One Space at a Time.” Carter Oosterhouse. < http://www.carteroosterhouse.com/helping_others.html > 12 Feb. 2011.
CATCH (Coordinated Approach To Child Health) is a coordinated school health program that focuses on physical activity, healthy food choices, and the prevention of tobacco use for children from preschool through 8thgrade. Utilizing classroom curriculum, physical education curriculum, child nutrition services programs, and a family Home Team program, CATCH improves children’s health behaviors and reduces the risk of childhood obesity.1
1. “CATCH Research and Development.” CATCH: Coordinated Approach to Child Health. < http://catchinfo.org/catch-research-and-development/ > 8 Feb. 2012.
The Communicable Disease Center was formed in 1946 by Dr. Joseph W. Mountin, a “visionary public health leader.”1 As a branch of the Public Health Service (PHS) located in Atlanta, Georgia, the CDC originally focused primarily on eradicating malaria. By 1950 they had expanded to become a center for disease surveillance through the solution of the Salk vaccine contamination issue in 1955 and the tracing of the influenza epidemic in 1957.2
1. “Historical Perspectives History of CDC.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. June 28, 1996. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. < http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00042732.htm > 27 Jan. 2011.
The Charleston Park Angels are volunteers who manage the Charleston Park Conservancy (CPC) Garden in the Parks program. Their manifesto begins with, “We are the people of Charleston – The historic, the proud” and ends with, “We come together to improve, to preserve, to share our parks in a way that is worthy of our beautiful city. We honor the past; we preserve the present; we celebrate the future; We are the Park Angels of Charleston. Our City. Our Parks. Our Pride. Our Mission.”1
Chicago Toy & Game Group is a series of events, awards, and resources that “encourage and promote the power and joy of invention in social, educational, and professional environments.” They are dedicated to “building community through play by providing opportunities for people of all ages to connect with one another and experience the joy and educational value of traditional play.”1
1. “About Us.” Chicago Toy & Game Fair. < http://www.chitagfair.com/about/about.htm > 7 Sep 2012.
Child's Play is a “gamer-run” nonprofit organization which coordinates game and toy donations for children’s hospitals worldwide. By providing videogame consoles, videogames, videos, coloring books, cartoons, books, and arts and crafts supplies, the organization seeks to ameliorate the stress of long-term hospitalization for the children and their families.1
1. “Giving to Charity This Year Is 'Child's Play' - Successful Video Game Charity Launches 2004 Effort.” Prnewswire. < http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/giving-to-charity-this-year-is-childs-play---successful-video-game-charity-launches-2004-effort-74438572.html > 18 Nov.
Children & Nature Network (C&NN) was founded in 2006 to address the Nature Deficit Disorder issue raised by Richard Louv's book Last Child in the Woods. Richard and five other leaders in diverse fields created the nonprofit Children & Nature Network with the initiative to “Leave No Child Inside.”1
1. “Children and Nature 2009: A Report on the Movement to Reconnect Children to the Natural World.” Children & Nature Network.
The Consumer Federation of America (CFA) started in 1968 as a gathering of consumer minded non-profit organizations. Today approximately 280 organizations have joined to gather information, analyze a broad range of consumer issues, and report to the public and government policy makers their findings and recommendations.
With a combined membership of over 50 million people, CFA focuses on four areas: advocacy, research, education and service. Based in Washington, DC, they lobby to further pro-consumer policies in Congress, the White House, federal and state regulatory agencies, state legislatures, and the courts.
The Detroit Mower Gang was formed to rescue abandoned parks in the city of Detroit, Michigan. Because of the economic downturn that greatly affected Detroit in 2009, city government was strapped to sufficiently maintain many of the public city parks. Rather than allow them to be overrun with weeds and become unusable for children, Tom Nardone decided to do something about it, one park at a time.1
1. Nardone, Tom. “Tom Nardone – Mower Gang Leader.” Mower Gang.com. < http://www.mowergang.com/page7/page7.html > 29 March 2011.
The nonprofit organization, Empower Playgrounds, Inc. (EPI), is providing electricity-generating playground equipment to villages in Ghana that are too remote to be on their nation's electricity grid. The school children gain a playground as well as safe, rechargeable LED lanterns to light their homes so they can do their homework. Additionally, the play equipment doubles as part of a hands-on science lab which brings science concepts into their daily lives.1
The Fresh Air Fund is an independent, not-for-profit agency that organizes free summer experiences in the country for New York City children from low-income communities who often aren't allowed to play outside due to unsafe neighborhoods. Through volunteer host families, five different summer camp options, and weekend camping trips, children are given opportunities to broaden their experiences and give them a “breath of fresh air.”1
1. “More Than a 'Breath of Fresh Air'.” The Opinion Pages, The New York Times. < http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/28/opinion/more-than-a-breath-of-fresh-air.html?scp=1&sq=more%20than%20a%20breathe%20of%20fresh%20air&st=Search > 8 June 2012.
Fuel Up to Play 60 is an initiative to empower youths to take action to improve nutrition and physical activity at their schools, which will improve their own health. The youth-led program is a joint venture of National Dairy Council (NDC) and the National Football League (NFL). Fuel Up to Play 60 is designed to address increasing childhood obesity, and recognizes that, “well-nourished kids tend to be better students, and physical activity supports learning.”1
1. “Fuel Up to Play 60 Guidebook.” Fuel Up to Play 60. < http://school.fueluptoplay60.com/documents/FUTP60_Guidebook.pdf > 14 Feb. 2012.
Games for Change is a nonprofit organization that desires “to inspire direct action and real world impact through engaging gameplay.”1 To assist in global humanitarian efforts and educational needs, Games for Change facilitates the creation and distribution of social impact games.
1. Ramos, Jeff. “Can Food Force and WeTopia change the social gaming industry?” Games for Change Blog. 1 Dec. 2011. < http://www.gamesforchange.org/blog/ > 16 Dec. 2011.
Good Sports, a nonprofit organization, was founded in 2003 in Boston, Massachusetts. With the sponsorship support of Spalding, Good Sports began by supplying 500 basketballs to 2,000 disadvantaged children.1 Thus began their mission of encouraging healthy, active lifestyles in disadvantaged youths, aged 5-18 years old, through the distribution of sports equipment, footwear, and apparel to community sports organizations and health centers.2
1. “Melissa T. Harper.” National Recreation Foundation. <http://www.nationalrecreationfoundation.org/crawford-winner> 13 April 2011.
2. “What We Do!” Good Sports. <http://www.goodsports.org/aboutus.shtml> 13 April 2011.
GP RED is a nonprofit organization that works “to identify and fill gaps in knowledge and practical resources” in the health, park, recreation, and land management industries and community “quality of life” agencies.1 By collaborating with industry associations, universities, private and nonprofit organizations, public agencies, and industry professionals, GP RED facilitates the creation of inter-disciplinary management tools, research, and development strategies to support and enhance the work of these industries and agencies.
1. “Research, Education, and Development for Health, Recreation, and Land Agencies.” GP RED. < http://www.gpred.org/ > 14 May 2012.
Green Hearts Institute for Nature in Childhood is a nonprofit conservation organization focused on “bringing children and nature back together” as a crucial step in raising a new generation of conservation-minded adults.1 Their work is based on research that shows frequent, unstructured childhood play in natural settings to be the most common influence on adult conservation values, while it also supports the healthy social, emotional, intellectual, creative, and physical development of children.
1. “Welcome to Green Hearts!” Green Hearts Inc. < http://www.greenheartsinc.org/ > 21 March 2012.
Head Start Body Start National Center for Physical Development and Outdoor Play (HSBS) is dedicated to promoting physical activity, outdoor play, and healthy lifestyles for young children and their families. Funded by the Office of Head Start, HSBS is a joint project of the American Association of Physical Activity and Recreation (AAPAR) and the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE).1 The AAPAR executive director Mariah Burton Nelson stated, “Through this partnership, almost a million children will receive not only a head start, but a body start, not only academic preparation but physical preparation.”2
1. Almeras, Bethe. Email to Playground Professionals. 23 Feb. 2011.
Healthy Kids Challenge (HKC) supports schools and communities in educating kids and their families to “Eat, Move, and Enjoy a Healthy Balance.”1 Led by registered, licensed dietitians, this nonprofit organization utilizes school curriculum, workshops, presentations, events, and distance assistance tools, such as their website and newsletters. Their focus is on making healthy eating and active play practices become attractive, simple, and fun for kids.2
1. “How HKC Works to Help Kids.” Healthy Kids Challenge. < http://www.healthykidschallenge.com/about-us/how-hkc-works > 27 Oct. 2011.
Healthy Parks Healthy People US is a National Park Service initiative that is a “holistic approach to promoting the health and well-being of people and the sustainability of the planet.”1 The initiative supports the major health roles that national, state, and local parks play in reducing our society's incidents of heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Healthy Parks Healthy People US also seeks to partner with business innovators, healthcare leaders, scientists, foundations, and advocacy organizations to achieve the reintegration of human, environmental, and ecological health.
1. “Welcome.” Healthy Parks Healthy People US. < http://www.nps.gov/public_health/hp/hphp.htm > 15 Nov. 2011.
HIGH FIVE is Canada’s quality standard for children’s sport and recreation. The standard focuses on helping organizations enhance the quality of their sport and recreation programs and providing positive experiences for children – experiences that will remain with them for a lifetime.1
HIGH FIVE was founded by Parks and Recreation Ontario (PRO) after a desire by the Ontario government to standardize and regulate the delivery of children’s programs in the recreation sector within the province. There was a need for an innovative approach that was research based and could be the ‘seal of approval’ for quality service delivery of children’s programs.
1. “What is HIGH Five.” HIGH FIVE. < http://www.highfive.org/what-high-five > 21 May 2013.
As a national non-profit organization, the Home Safety Council (HSC) is dedicated to preventing home-related injuries through educating the public. The Home Safety Council is a “leading source for home safety tips, checklists and information about home fire safety, falls prevention, poison prevention, water safety, child safety, disaster preparedness as well as many other home safety topics.”1 HSC utilizes innovative website technology, educational resources for teachers, policy makers, and corporations, partnerships with companies, and a network of volunteers to accomplish its goals.
The International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA) is an international trade association for all permanently sited amusement facilities such as amusement and theme parks, family entertainment centers, museums and science centers, zoos and aquariums, water parks and resorts, casinos, and the amusement industry manufacturers and suppliers.1 They are an industry resource for improving efficiency, marketing, safety, and profitability as well as being a united advocate with local, national, and international media and government officials.
The National Museum of Play in Rochester, New York, later known as The Strong, created the International Center for the History of Electronic Games (ICHEG) in 2009. The ICHEG collects, studies, and interprets how video games and electronic games affect the ways people play, learn, and connect across cultural and geographical boundaries.1 They do this through their collections of artifacts, their interactive exhibits, a weekly blog, and publishing articles and reviews in the American Journal of Play.
1. “ICHEG Library and Archival Collections.” Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play. < http://www.libraryandarchivesofplay.org/collections/icheg-library-archival > 5 April 2011.
The International Council of Toy Industries (ICTI) is a not-for-profit worldwide toy industry association. They are committed to facilitate the exchange of information on toy industry issues, to promote universal toy safety standards, to reduce or eliminate trade barriers, and to advance manufacturing programs that address fair and lawful employment practices, workplace safety, and environmental concerns.1
1. “What is ICTI?” ICTI, International Council of Toy Industries. < http://www.toy-icti.org/about/whatis.html > 21 March 2012.
International Play Association USA is the national affiliate of International Play Association World, an interdisciplinary, international, non-governmental organization founded in Denmark in 1961. The membership of this organization is open to all persons or groups that endorse the United Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959) which state: “The child shall have full opportunity for play and recreation which should be directed to the same purposes as education; society and the public authorities shall endeavor to promote the enjoyment of this right.”1
1. United Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959), Article 7, Paragraph 3.
The International Play Association (IPA) World is a global non-government organization that protects, preserves, and promotes the child's fundamental human right to play. IPA World identifies negative trends affecting children's development worldwide and proposes remedies that involve better housing and community planning and meeting the children's needs for health, education, welfare, and leisure.1 It is particularly concerned where these needs are met through play.
1. “IPA Declaration of the Child's Right to Play.” IPA World. < http://ipaworld.org/category/about-us/ > 8 Sep. 2011.
The International Play Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) was formed in 1995 by a group of twelve playground equipment manufacturers. IPEMA is a nonprofit, membership trade association with the goal of representing and promoting an open market for manufacturers of playground equipment and surfacing.1
The International School Grounds Alliance (ISGA) is a global network of organizations and professionals dedicated to improving the design and utilization of school grounds in order to enrich children's learning and play. They believe that “school grounds are crucial childhood landscapes, both in terms of the considerable time spent there and the messages to children (both explicit and implicit) that come from their design and care.”1
1. “New international group forms to address an increasingly sedentary and risk-averse generation of children disconnected from nature.” International School Grounds Alliance. Press release April 24, 2012. < http://www.schoolyards.org/pdf/ISGA_PressRelease_4-24-12.pdf > 21 May 2012.
The International Toy Library Association is an association of toy library associations and individuals from around the world who serve children by giving them opportunities to experience play at their homes by lending toys and games to them as well as offering shared play opportunities at their library facilities with other children.
KaBOOM! is a national nonprofit organization founded in 1996 by Darell Hammond and Dawn Hutchison. Since 1996, Darell has served as CEO and led KaBOOM! in raising more than $200 million to build more than 2,000 playgrounds with help from more than 1 million volunteers with the playgrounds annually serving more than 5.5 million children.
The name according to Darell refers to “an explosion of hope and opportunity and possibility and what can be.”1 The vision of the organization was a great place to play within walking distance of every child. This was to be achieved through the partnering with communities and their leaders.
1. Hunter, Jeff. “The Chief Executive of Play.” Today’s Playground. May 2001.
Kids Around the World is a faith-based organization founded in 1994 by Dennis Johnson. Initially, their goal was to provide safe play equipment for children who were affected by natural disasters, economic stress, political injustice, war and other situations beyond their control. Many organizations, such as the Rotary International Foundation, the Million Dollar Round Table Foundation, Salvation Army, World Vision, and Samaritan’s Purse, along with individuals provide the resources for global travel and the construction of playgrounds.1
1. “About Us.” Kids Around the World. < http://www.kidsaroundtheworld.com/about.htm > 31 Jan 2011.
Kids in Distressed Situations (K.I.D.S.) is a nonprofit organization that gives children and teens impacted by poverty and tragedy new kid-essential products that are vital to their self-esteem. K.I.D.S. ships and delivers products directly to impoverished children through a network of local partner agencies located in all 50 states.
For every $1 raised, K.I.D.S. provides $10 worth of product. The nonprofit receives both financial and product donations directly from companies, foundations, and individuals.
Kiwanis International started in 1915 as a business and professional men's club in Detroit, Michigan. The unusual name of “Kiwanis” came from the American Indian expression, which is translated as “We Build.”
Learning Structures began in 1971 when a young architect named Christopher “Kit” Clews was smitten by a young schoolteacher. The teacher asked Kit if he could design a playground for $100. Using friends, family, and parents of the children who attended the school, Kit designed and constructed a playground and came in under budget! Word spread among the teaching community in New Hampshire, and soon Kit began taking requests for custom-designed adventure playscapes all across New England. The schoolteacher became Mrs. Noele Clews.
Let's Play, a community partnership program created by Dr. Pepper Snapple Group (DPS), has the goal of getting kids and families active outside and to “provide the tools, places and inspiration to help communities increase physical activity.”1 As part of DPS's corporate philanthropic program, ACTION Nation, Let's Play supports Michelle Obama's Let's Move! initiative, believing that obesity can be solved when everyone cooperates and takes responsibility for getting kids active outside.
Let’s Move! is a campaign by First Lady Michelle Obama dedicated to solving the problem of childhood obesity within a generation. Mrs. Obama began a national discussion about the health and nutrition of America’s children when she broke ground on the White House Kitchen Garden with local elementary school students. Further conversations on the subject grew into the Let’s Move! initiative that was launched February 9, 2010, at the White House.1
1. “America’s Move to Raise A Healthier Generation of Kids.” Let’s Move! < http://www.letsmove.gov/about.php > 10 Feb. 2011.
Let’s Move in School is a national initiative to increase physical activity before, during, and after school organized by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). This group is composed of five national associations, six district associations, and a research consortium. It provides its members with the resources, support, and programs to improve their skill in furthering the health and well-being of the American public. The largest of the five national associations is the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). They are a nonprofit professional membership association that sets the standards for practice in physical education and sport.1
1. “Let’s Move in School Press Release.” Let’s Move in School.
On June 1, 2010, First Lady Michelle Obama launched the Let's Move Outside! initiative, a new component of her Let’s Move! campaign. Designed to support President Obama's America's Great Outdoors initiative that had been announced two months previously, Let's Move Outside! promotes outdoor physical activity for families and children.1 This new emphasis on outdoor activities came after research linked children's overall health with their time in nature.2
1. “News Release: Let's Move Outside!” Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior. < http://www.doi.gov/news/pressreleases/Lets-Move-Outside.cfm# > 22 June 2011.
2. Lipman, Suz. “First Lady Says Let's Move...Outside!” Field Notes from the Future. 28 May 2010.
Little League Baseball, Inc. is a nonprofit youth sports program created to assist youth in developing discipline, teamwork, courage, loyalty, good character, and strong physical health. Little League was “designed to develop superior citizens rather than superior athletes.”1
1. “The Mission of Little League.” Little League Online. < http://www.littleleague.org/learn/about/historyandmission/mission.htm > 12 Oct. 2011.
In 1997, Coach Eddie Bagwell of the Rockdale Youth Baseball Association (RYBA) Conyers, Georgia invited a 7 year old child confined to a wheelchair to participate in the game. Michael had attended every game and practice while cheering on his 5 year old brother. The next year, the RYBA gave other children with disabilities the opportunity to play baseball within their complex of typical baseball diamonds. Participants expressed a desire for uniforms, to make plays in the field, and to round the bases like other players. That year their league began with 35 players on 4 teams.
Since there were no established programs for offering baseball to children with disabilities, they decided on the following guidelines for the players and games:
The National Association for Recreational Equality (NARE) was formed in 19971 by Dr. Reeve R. Brenner to educate the public and advocate with communities concerning the need for non-aggressive, fully inclusive sports and recreation.2
1. “National Association for Recreational Equality, Inc.” Charityblossom. < http://www.charityblossom.org/nonprofit/national-association-for-recreational-equality-inc-rockville-md-20852-521974776/ > 9 Oct 2011.
2. Ray, Alan. “Brenner's Bankshot and Naismith's Basketball: Clergymen at Play.” Email to Playground Professionals. 30 Sep.
The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), headquartered in Reston, Virginia, is the largest of the five professional organizations within the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). As a nonprofit membership association they “enhance knowledge, improve professional practice, and increase support for high quality physical education, sport, and physical activity programs.”1 The association offers an array of informational conferences, valuable resources, and grants and awards to its members.
1. “Mission and Strategic Plan.” National Association for Sport and Physical Education. < http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/about/mission.cfm > 14 July 2011.
The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) began in 1926 when professional researchers and educators joined together to organize quality nursery schools. Known as the National Association for Nursery Education (NANE), they began their mission to elevate early education with a conference in 1926 and their first publication in 1929: Minimum Essentials for Nursery Education.
The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) was founded in 1921 in Atlantic City, New Jersey. What started with 51 principals grew in the next five years to include 3,000 members. Today NAESP, headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia, represents nearly 30,000 elementary school and middle school principals.1
1. “History.” National Association of Elementary School Principals. < http://www.naesp.org/history-1 > 21 Sep. 2010.
The National Association of State Park Directors (NASPD) was formed in 1962 to advocate for state park systems in America.
Stephen T. Mather formed the National Park Service (NPS) in 1916.1 After five years of establishing national parks, he was faced with two choices: either adding parks to the national system that were worthy of being established but weren't of national significance or with promoting state park systems to establish the locally significant parks.
1. “About Us.” National Park Service. < http://www.nps.gov/aboutus/index.htm > 18 Aug. 2011.
In 1985, the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) establish a program addressing the problem of injury directly. With funding from the United States Department of Transportation, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) was begun in Atlanta, Georgia.
In 1990, the Injury Control Act of Congress placed the NCIPC directly under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) where it remains today. The NCIPC is also known as the CDC’s Injury Center. They are organized with a Director over three main divisions: Division of Injury Response, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, and Division of Violence Prevention.
The National Center on Accessibility (NCA) was established at Indiana University in Bloomington in 1992. With support from the National Park Service, NCA promotes access for and inclusion of people with disabilities in parks, recreation, and tourism.1 Through research, training, technical assistance, and consultations, NCA supports the principles of universal design and inclusion practices in their suggestions for professionals in the recreation industry.
1. “About NCA.” National Center on Accessibility. < http://www.ncaonline.org/?q=node/8 > 7 July 2011.
The National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity (NCPPA) is a network of organizations that are working together to establish policies that “improve the public's health and prevent and manage chronic diseases through increased levels of physical activity.”1 While they don't believe they can mandate or regulate changes in individual's behaviors, they do believe that local, state, and national policy changes can make communities more conducive to physical activity.2
1. “Policy Framework & Platform.” National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity. < http://www.ncppa.org/policy/platform/ > 30 Sep. 2011.
2. “National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity.” National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity.
The National Council of Youth Sports is a sports organization that promotes and supports organized amateur youth sport programs through advocacy, education, resources, trainings, research, and conferences. As a united voice they support youth sport leaders and the inclusion of all youth in sports to develop “positive attributes including healthier lifestyles, self-esteem, fair play and good citizenship.”1 They believe these experiences will “make a child's life more fun and more complete”2
1. “Mission, Vision & Objectives.” NCYS: National Council of Youth Sports. < http://www.ncys.org/about/objectives.php > 20 Sep. 2012.
2. Johnson, Sally S. “Executive Director's Report.” Sep. 13-15, 2011. NCYS: National Council of Youth Sports.
The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of emergency room visits involving injuries. From this sampling, a national estimate is made concerning the total number of injuries treated in hospital emergency rooms.1
1. “National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) On-line.” US Consumer Product Safety Commission. < http://www.cpsc.gov/library.neiss.html > 29 June 2011.
Claire Scheibe, co-founder of the magazine Toy Farmer, and Dave Bell, president of ERTL Company, a producer of farm toy replicas, joined forces to create a farm toy museum in Dyersville, Iowa. Together they approached Dyersville Industries, Inc. (DII) Board of Directors about creating the National Farm Toy Museum (NFTM) to accommodate the growing farm toy industry and National Farm Toy Show.1
1. “History.” About Us – National Farm Toy Museum. < http://www.nationalfarmtoymuseum.com/aboutus/index.cfm > 1 March 2011.
The National Institute for Play was founded by Dr. Stuart Brown. Dr. Brown trained in general medicine, internal medicine, psychiatry and clinical research. He first realized the importance of play when studying a group of homicidal males. He concluded that the absence of play could have dangerous long-term consequences.1
Dr. Brown also became aware that the actual science of play was expanding. However, at that time, the play-related research was disorganized and deficient in measuring factors that were clinically easy to observe. It was obvious to Dr. Brown that a larger and more professional organization was needed.
1. “Our Founder, Dr. Stuart Brown.” National Institute for Play. < http://nifplay.org/about_us.html > 16 Aug. 2010.
Lekotek Centers facilitate interactive play experiences for children with special needs and their families. They make “the world of play accessible to children with all types of disabilities” through inclusive play sessions with adapted toys, traditional toys, books, and computers.1 Lekotek Centers focus on what children with special needs can do and also the needs of their families who support them to facilitate the children in their learning and development to reach their full potential. To extend the play experience, they also loan appropriate toys, books, and software to children and their families to be used at home.
The National Museum of Play is one of America’s largest history museums and the nation’s second largest children's museum.1 With a vast collection of dolls, toys, and games, it is dedicated to exploring “play and the ways in which it encourages learning, creativity, and discovery and illuminates cultural history.” The museum also seeks to communicate the “critical role of play in human physical, social, and intellectual development.”2
The National Playground Contractors Association is a non-profit organization started in February of 1997 in order to provide a support program and set standards for playground construction professionals. NPCA was launched by six playground contractors: Dave Antonacci, Mike Baker, Paul Cullins, Mike Egan, Laz Gonzales and Curtis Stoddard. They organized the 501(A), elected officers, and wrote the mission statement or the purpose of the NPCA, which reads, “A nationwide partnership formed to contribute to the advancement of the playground building industry by promoting playground installation as a legitimate contracting profession.”1
1. Stoddard, Curtis. “The National Playground Contractors Association.” Today’s Playground. March 2004. p. 8.
With the new guidelines for public playground equipment being published during the 1980s, the need for a playground safety training program became apparent to Fran Wallach, Ken Kutska, and Monty Christiansen. As members of the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA), these three industry leaders met with the NRPA Executive Director in 1989 concerning a training program under NRPA to establish the playground safety standards of the ASTM International (ASTM) and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as “best practice” for safety compliance in designing and operating public playgrounds.
The National Program for Playground Safety (NPPS) was founded in 1995 by Dr. Donna Thompson of the University of Northern Iowa with a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As a non-profit organization, NPPS is committed to research and safety education for both the public and the playground industry. NPPS is guided by the following goals:
The National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) was created on August 14, 1965, when five national park and recreation organizations merged to form one united agency.1 What started as a joining of like-minded organizations continues to be a center for connecting advocates, suppliers, professionals, and government leaders concerning the vital role of parks and recreation.
1. The five forming organizations were the National Recreation Association (NRA), the American Institute of Park Executives (AIPE), the American Recreation Society (ARS), the National Conference on State Parks (NCSP), and the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (an affiliate of AIPE).
The National Recreation and Park Foundation (NRPF) is a nonprofit organization that advances parks, recreation, and environmental conservation efforts. Their mission is to “support research and public awareness of the economic, social, and physical value of parks and recreation in creating healthy families and communities for all populations to include educating and reaching the underserved.”1
1. “National Recreation and Park Foundation: Who Are We and What Is It That We Do?” National Recreation and Park Foundation. < http://www.nrpfoundation.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=48&Itemid=2 > 28 Feb. 2011.
The National Recreation Association was originally called the Playground Association of America (PAA), which was formed in 1906 to further the playground movement in America. Over the years the mission of the organization shifted from playgrounds to emphasize a broad spectrum of recreation activities for all ages and abilities.
The National Recreation Foundation (NRF) began as the War Camp Community Services (WCCS), Inc. that was formed during World War I to provide recreation and services on the “homefront.” After the war ended, the NRF was organized in 1919 with the remaining $1.5 million from the WCCS funds.
As a nonprofit foundation, the National Recreation Foundation is dedicated to enhancing mental, physical, social, and spiritual health.1 A deliberately diverse citizens' Board of Trustees was formed with a common love of and respect for recreation as well as the belief that high quality recreation fosters social stability in communities.
1. “Our History.” National Recreation Foundation. < http://www.nationalrecreationfoundation.org/history > 13 April 2011.
A group of industrial leaders from the Midwest met in 1912 because of their concern about safety in the U.S. workplace. They came to the conclusion that there should be an organization to promote safety. A year later in Chicago on October 13, the National Council for Industrial Safety was founded at the Second Safety Congress in New York City with 200 attendees. In order to broaden the scope and to include non-industrial safety issues, the name of the organization was changed to the National Safety Council (NSC) the following year.
Ed Sobey, who was the first director of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, founded the National Toy Hall of Fame in 1998.1 Originally located in Salem, Oregon, within the A.C. Gilbert's Discovery Village, the National Toy Hall of Fame was purchased in 2002 by the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum, later known as The Strong, and moved to Rochester, New York.2 It is one of the five play partners of The Strong.
The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) is dedicated to protecting and restoring wildlife habitat in order to leave a legacy of healthy wildlife for the next generation. Built on a network of state affiliates, the National Wildlife Federation “encourages sustainable conservation policy and promotes transparent natural resource management.”1
The Natural Learning Initiative (NLI) was founded to assist communities in creating “stimulating places for play, learning, and environmental education – environments that recognize human dependence on the natural world.”1 The Natural Learning Initiative is concerned that children are losing contact with the natural world due to the lack of attention and development of the outdoor play spaces of child education centers;2
As a collection of landscape architects, community planners, environmentalists, and early childhood educators, the Nature Action Collaborative for Children (NACC) is dedicated to re-connecting children with the natural world. Recognizing that children worldwide face societal, technological, and environmental conditions that are adversely affecting their physical and mental health, NACC is providing nature education resources to enrich their daily lives.
Nature Explore is dedicated to assisting children and families “develop a profound engagement with the natural world, where nature is an integral, joyful part of children's daily learning.”1 Realizing that connections with nature are part of a healthy childhood and noting that many children no longer “spend unhurried hours exploring the natural world,” Nature Explore provides educators, designers, and families research-based resources and play space design consultations to bring nature back into children's daily lives.2
Children & Nature Network and ecoAmerica founded Nature Rocks in 2009, a national program to facilitate families in playing and exploring nature together.1 They were initially funded and/or supported by The Nature Conservancy, REI Inc., The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and the American Heart Association. Later these partners were joined by The American Camp Association, Richard Louv, and The Flora Family Foundation.2
1. “Nature Rocks.” ecoAmerica, start with people. < http://www.ecoamerica.org/programs/nature-rocks > 26 June 2011.
2. “About Nature Rocks.” Nature Rocks, Let's Go Explore. < http://www.naturerocks.org/about.aspx > 7 June 2011.
PlayCore, a playground designer and manufacturer, and the Natural Learning Initiative (NLI), a design and assistance program of the College of Design of North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina, joined together to create the program NatureGrounds: Putting Nature Into Play. Their mission is to “create a dramatic shift in the standard playground development process by deliberately designing nature back into children's lives.”1
1. “Press Release: Unique Playground Initiative 'Puts Nature Into Play'.” NatureGrounds. < http://www.naturegrounds.org/news.html > 22 June 2011.
The New Games Foundation was an organization that hosted free community play events in parks where everyone was encouraged to “Play Hard. Play Fair. Nobody Hurt.” They believed that physical play was vital for everyone, that no one should be left out of the activity, that little or no equipment is required, and that the rules of play should be “dirt simple and fun.” While they believed that competition and cooperation should co-exist, winning or losing was not important. Rather, the process of play was emphasized as games were readily adapted or changed to fit the circumstances.1
1. “The History of the New Games Foundation.” Yehuda. < http://jergames.blogspot.com/2008/02/history-of-new-games-foundation.html > 16 Jan. 2012.
In October 2007, the National Football League (NFL) started a youth health and fitness campaign called NFL PLAY 60. In an effort to combat childhood obesity, NFL PLAY 60 focuses on increasing the wellness of young fans by encouraging them to be physically active for a minimum of 60 minutes each day. The plan was implemented through NFL’s in-school, after-school, and team-based programs. The initiative is prominent during key NFL events, such as the Super Bowl, Pro Bowl Draft, Kickoff, and Thanksgiving Day games. Numerous players and coaches support the program year round.1
1. “About NFL Play 60.” Play 60 The NFL Movement for an Active Generation. < http://www.nfl.com/play60 > 9 Feb. 2011.
Operation Playground was founded as a humanitarian effort to construct or rebuild playgrounds in Thailand following the tsunami that devastated Southeast Asia in December 26, 2004. The founder of Operation Playground is John Moretti, who as an international photographer felt compelled to go to Thailand after the tsunami. As he helped rebuild the devastated homes and buildings, he became aware of the affect the tsunami was having on the children. Wanting to help their situation, he returned to the United States to initiate Operation Playground to raise funds to rebuild playgrounds lost in the tsunami.1
Out2Play is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing safe, welcoming play spaces for every elementary school in the five boroughs of New York City that needs one. Andrea Wenner saw the need when in 2001 she noticed that the elementary school near her apartment did not have a playground. Four years later as a student at Columbia Business School, Andrea created a business plan for an assignment to provide playgrounds to schools. Her professor suggested she follow through with the plan and assisted in securing funding for her first playground.1
1. “Real American Heroes: Helping Kids Be More Active, Andrea Wenner.” Shape. November 2010. < http://www.out2play.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/11-2010-Shape.pdf > 30 Sep. 2011.
The Outdoors Alliance for Kids (OAK) is a national strategic partnership of organizations from diverse sectors with the common interest in expanding the number and quality of opportunities for children, youth, and families to connect with the outdoors. It was formed in June 2010 through partnerships with the Children & Nature Network, YMCA of the USA, REI, Sierra Club, National Wildlife Federation, Izaak Walton League of America, The Outdoor Foundation, and National Recreation and Park Association.1
1. Franz, Betsy. “Outdoor Alliance for Kids (OAK) helps connect kids, families and nature.” Nature Examiner. June 3, 2010.
Author and educator Diana Huss Green gathered a group of parents who were concerned that their high standards for their children's education were not being fulfilled. In 1978, they formed the Parents' Choice Foundation, a non-commercial clearinghouse to review children's books, toys, music, television, software, video games, websites, and magazines. They wanted to give parents “reliable unbiased information about tools to help their children learn, to explore new challenges, to discuss ideas and to pursue dreams.”1
Park Prescriptions is a movement to create a healthier population by strengthening the connection between the healthcare system and public lands across the country. With parks, healthcare providers, and public health agencies working together to promote physical activity, good nutrition, and improved health, these partnerships encourage the doctor-patient relationship to consider how outdoor physical activity can be included in the treatment of health issues resulting from inactivity and poor nutrition.1
1. “Park Prescriptions: Resources for Good Health from the Great Outdoors.” American Trails. < http://www.americantrails.org/resources/health/Park-Prescriptions-Health-Great-Outdoors.html > 5 Aug. 2011.
Parks Build Community is a national initiative that promotes the value of parks and recreation on the health and vitality of communities across America. National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) launched the Parks Build Community initiative in 2009 with plans to revitalize Washington D.C.'s Marvin Gaye Park. Their mission is to select a park in an underserved area and transform it into a thriving gathering place for youth and adults.1
First Lady Michelle Obama announced the Let's Move campaign against childhood obesity on February 9, 2010. That same day the organization of the Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA) was also announced. PHA was organized to support the Let's Move campaign by “encouraging, tracking, and communicating commitments to healthier lifestyles from partner organizations.”1
1. Bryan, Clifford. “Michelle Obama announces chairs partnership for healthy America.” Michelle Obama Examiner. < http://www.examiner.com/michelle-obama-in-national/michelle-obama-announces-chairs-partnership-for-healthy-america > 5 Aug. 2011.
Partnership for Play Every Day is a voluntary and collaborative initiative to increase the spaces and quality of play for children and youth in America. Affiliated with more than 30 of the nation’s leading non-profits, government agencies, universities, and corporations, the Partnership for Play Every Day hopes to create and sustain momentum for a national movement to have kids get 60 minutes of physical activity every day.1
1. “The Partnership for Play Every Day.” Partnership for Play Every Day. < http://www.playeverday.org/about/more-infor.html > 1 Feb. 2011.
PlayCore, the Natural Learning Initiative (NLI), and American Trails joined together to create Pathways for Play, a program to create walking, hiking, and biking trails that have “play pockets” along the way. These play opportunities vary in size and contain a mix of natural and manufactured play elements, which are linked by pathways, greenways, trails, or sidewalks to encourage continuous movement.1
1. “About Pathways for Play.” Pathways for Play. < http://www.pathwaysforplay.org/about.aspx > 22 June 2011.
PE4life is a nonprofit agency that helps schools build fit kids by advocating for and assisting in the development and enhancement of physical education programs and physical activity opportunities in schools and communities. They understand the importance of physical activity to children and youth, and are passionate in their work to help increase PE’s visibility, importance, and place in America’s schools. Their vision is that all children embrace wellness for life.
Playful City USA, sponsored by the Humana Foundation, is an application-based national recognition program honoring cities and towns that make play a priority and use innovative programs to get children active, playing, and healthy. Playful City USA communities make a commitment to play and physical activity by developing unique local action plans to increase the access to play in their community. In doing so, some of the most innovative concepts and cost-effective programs are being developed in Playful City USA communities. KaBOOM!, the national nonprofit organization dedicated to saving play, created Playful City USA in 2007 to help local governments address the Play Deficit.1
The Playground Association of America was formed to support and expand the playground movement. In America this movement began in Boston, Massachusetts as a solution to problems stemming from increasing urbanization, industrialization, and immigration. As the cities became crowded due to the Industrial Revolution and the waves of immigration, reform leaders saw playgrounds as a means to train healthy, responsible American citizens and provide relief for the children of the inner city.
Playground Builders is a nonprofit registered charity dedicated to building playgrounds in war-torn areas in the world. They believe that playgrounds are places where “kids can be kids, community members can feel connected and empowered, new possibilities find a strong foundation and peace and hope begins.”1 With a motto of “Creating Play, Building Hope”2
Marcus Veerman, an Australian teacher, arrived in Mae Sot, Thailand in 2008 to build classrooms. Instead he found the greatest need was to build playgrounds to encourage “interaction, cooperation, experimentation, and imagination” that could be found outside the “call-and-response” teaching method used for up to six hours a day in a classroom.1
1. “Founders Story.” Go Play! < http://www.goplayproject.org/2010/06/founders-story/ > 14 July 2011.
Trevor Field of South Africa watched as a group of African women waited for a wind to provide power for a windmill-driven pump so they could get water. In rural areas in Africa with lack of access to electricity to pump water, Trevor saw the plight of women and young girls as they waited for windmill-driven pumps or traveled distances to get water for their families, which was often not clean water. Because young girls are tasked with getting water, they often have a disproportionate disadvantage for an education.1
1. Murray, Ben. “Children's Merry-Go-Round Inspires Idea for Water Pump Systems in Africa.” TakePart. < http://www.takepart.com/news/2009/11/19/childrens-merry-go-round-inspires-ideas-for-water > 27 Feb. 2011.
Headquartered in Charleston, South Carolina, The PlayToday! Foundation was founded in July 2010 by Channing Proctor and Steve Hatton. Channing began the Charleston Miracle League, and Steve started the Summerville Miracle League in Summerville, South Carolina. The Miracle League gives children with special needs the opportunity to participate in playing the game of baseball on specialized fields.1
Playwork is the support given by adults in an unobtrusive way of children’s open-ended, creative free play. During a play session, Playworkers are available to assist a child if needed, but strive to be as inconspicuous as possible to allow the children to direct their own play. Playworkers promote an adventuresome place for them to play, while keeping a watchful eye on them for their safety.1
1. Leichter-Saxby, Morgan. “What is Play? And Playwork?” Playeverything. < http://playeverything.wordpress.com/what-is-play/ > 3 Dec. 2010.
Playworks is a national, nonprofit organization that bolsters learning by providing safe, healthy, and inclusive play opportunities for school children.1 Founded by Jill Vialet under the name Sport4Kids, the name was changed to Playworks in July 2009.2
The Please Touch Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is a nonprofit interactive museum for young children, which provides “learning opportunities through play” that lead to a “lifetime of learning and cultural awareness.”1 Their mission centers around being: playful and fun, creative and innovative, educational, safe and clean, diverse, child-centered, family-focused, and collaborative.2
Pop Warner Little Scholars, Inc. (PWLS) is a nonprofit football, cheer, and dance program for youth ages 5-16. PWLS requires all participants to maintain academic standards, recognizing that scholastics and athletics “go hand in hand.”1 While they provide fun athletic learning opportunities in football, cheer, and dance, they also emphasize “the ideals of sportsmanship, scholarship and physical fitness.”2
1. “About Pop Warner Little Scholars, Inc.” Pop Warner. < http://www.popwarner.com/aboutus/pop.asp > 18 Oct. 2011.
2. “The Pop Warner Mission.” Pop Warner. < http://www.popwarner.com/aboutus/mission.asp > 18 Oct. 2011.
Pop-Up Adventure Play (PUAP) is a “start-up social enterprise” that advocates and serves as a catalyst for play opportunities for children, families, and communities. PUAP’s work is greatly influenced by the international adventure playground movement and the United Kingdom’s profession of playwork. Operating primarily in the United States and the UK, the mission of PUAP is “to advocate for children’s hands-on and self-directed play within communities of supportive adults.”1
The President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition (PCFSN) is an advisory committee whose mission is to educate and empower Americans to live a healthy lifestyle which includes regular physical activity and good nutrition.1
1. “Mission Statement.” President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition. < http://www.fitness.gov/about-us/what-we-do/mission-statement/ > 30 Sep. 2011.
Founded in 1990, Project Fit America (PFA) is a national non-profit public charity committed to physical fitness for children. Sponsored by numerous hospitals, foundations, and health organizations, Project Fit America donates to schools, grades K-8, broad-based fitness programs, which is in over 750 schools across the United States.1
1. “Who We Are.” Project Fit America. < http://www.projectfitamerica.org/who_are_we.html > 24 Jan. 2011.
Providence Children's Museum is an interactive hands-on museum designed to “inspire learning through active play and exploration.”1 They believe in the vital role that unstructured child-led play has in facilitating both learning and creativity. Located in Providence, Rhode Island, they serve southern New England children ages 1-11 years and the adults in their lives.
Rachel's Challenge is a nonprofit organization that offers a series of school, business, and community programs and workshops modeled after the life of Rachel Scott, the first person killed in the 1999 Columbine High School shootings. Their mission is to “inspire, equip, and empower every person to create a permanent positive culture change in their school, business and community by starting a chain reaction of kindness and compassion.”1
The Josephine D. Randall Junior Museum, known as the Randall Museum, is an interactive art and science museum that is run by the San Francisco Recreation and Park Department. Located on 16 acres that overlook San Francisco, they strive to inspire creativity, curiosity, and appreciation of the world cultures and environment.1
Restore Hockey is a nonprofit organization dedicated to making the sport of hockey financially accessible to children through the recycling of hockey equipment, financial donations for new equipment packages, partnerships with businesses and leagues, and the proceeds from their Pro Shop. As hockey is the most expensive of the major North American sports, their goal is to provide the equipment so all children have a “chance to fall in love with the game.”1
1. “Recycle the Game.” Restore Hockey – A Division of Restore Sports, Inc. < http://www.restorehockey.org/page/show/266503-recycle-the-game > 18 Jan. 2012.
Right to Play began as an idea of the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee in 1992. They organized the Olympic Aid committee in preparation of the 1994 Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer, Norway. Specific Olympic athletes were chosen to be Ambassadors of Olympic Aid to raise money for projects in war zones or areas of distress. Projects included building a hospital in Sarajevo, assisting refugees in Afghanistan, supporting a mother/child program in Guatemala, building schools in Eritrea, and developing a support program for children with disabilities in Lebanon.1
1. “History.” Right to Play. < http://www.righttoplay.com/canada/about-us/Pages/History.aspx > 7 July 2011.
Safe Kids USA started as the National SAFE KIDS Campaign, a U.S. nonprofit organization, which was founded by Martin R. Eichelberger, M.D. and Herta Feely in 1988. Dr. Eichelberger, as head of the emergency trauma unit at the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, DC, saw many injuries to children that could have been prevented.1 Unintentional childhood injury is the leading cause of death and disability for children under the age of 14. At that time, there were no programs to prevent childhood injuries before they happened. The organization’s founding sponsor was Johnson & Johnson.
1. Hunter, Jeff. “National Safe Kid Campaign looks to Expand into Playground Safety.” Today’s Playground, March 2001. p. 50.
In 2004, representatives from 14 countries joined Safe Kids USA to create a global non-profit global organization called Safe Kids Worldwide, which is located in Washington, DC. In 2010, they had 19 member countries across the globe. The mission of the organization is to “work together to educate families, create safer environments, and advocate for improved laws to protect children.”1 The founding sponsor of this organization is FedEx.
Safe Kids Worldwide coalition members:
1. “How We Work.” Safe Kids Worldwide. < http://www.safekids.org/worldwide/how-we-work/ > 17 Aug. 2010.
Safe Routes to School (SRTS) National Partnership is a network of organizations dedicated to creating “safe, convenient, and fun opportunities for children to bicycle and walk to and from schools.”1 In doing so, they seek to reduce traffic congestion, improve the air quality around schools due to the reduction of traffic, and to increase children's activity and thereby reduce the risk of obesity and obesity-related health problems.2
1. “Quick Facts.” Safe Routes to School National Partnership. < http://www.saferoutespartnership.org/mediacenter/quickfacts > 10 Oct. 2011.
The Säjai® Foundation was formed in 2006 by Barb King to “educate and motivate youth ages 6 to 11 to make healthy choices that will serve them for a lifetime.”1 As a Minnesota based nonprofit organization, the foundation works with local communities in educating children to include “healthy eating, physical activity, and outdoor exploration” in their lives.2 The Säjai Foundation is also using these key lifestyle choices to combat childhood obesity.
Sponsored by the National Wildlife Federation, the Schoolyard Habitats program reconnects children to nature through outdoor classroom environments that attract and support local wildlife. Wildlife habitats on school grounds encourage students to use their academic skills, curiosity, and creativity to learn about local ecosystems and wildlife species.
The New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) launched The Sara Lee Schupf Family Center for Play, Science, and Technology Learning (SciPlay) in September 2010. Sara Schupf created the Center to engage more children with science concepts and scientific thinking through outdoor playgrounds. Her goal for SciPlay was both to inspire children's interest in science through outdoor playgrounds and to encourage teachers to utilize the playground as an avenue for science learning.1
1. Saldutti, Catherine C. and Kiran D. Purohit. “SciPlay Phase I: Situating the Project in the Literature.” SciPlay, Learning Science Through Play. 2009. < http://www.nysci.org/media/file/sciplay-secondary-research-compilation-final.pdf > 8 Sep 2011.
When Shane Alexander was born to Catherine Curry-Williams and Scott Williams in 1997, he was diagnosed with Spinal Muscular Atrophy, which prohibited him from moving or breathing on his own. He died a few weeks later from this genetic disorder. Had he lived, he would have been confined to a wheelchair.1
The Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK) team of researchers and educators are focused on growing a healthier next generation of children1 through the development of healthy lifestyles, social and personal skills, motor skills, and movement knowledge.2 In 1989, they began to evaluate, create, and implement new approaches to elementary physical education.3
1. “FAQs.” SPARK. < http://www.sparkpe.org/what-is-spark/faqs/ > 17 Aug. 2011.
2. “Spark Objectives.” SPARK. < http://www.sparkpe.org/about-us/objectives/ > 17 Aug. 2011.
3. “About Us.” SPARK. <http://www.sparkpe.org/about-us/> 17 Aug.
Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES) promotes land development and management practices that are sustainable through generating less waste, minimizing impact on the landscape, and by using less energy, water, and natural resources. SITES is developing a national, voluntary rating system for sustainable landscapes and thus defining and quantifying sustainability for “those who design, construct, operate and maintain landscapes.”1
Pat Rumbaugh, a physical education teacher and tennis coach, wanted to promote play in her community of Takoma Park, Maryland, located in the Washington, D.C. area. After contacting KaBOOM! for information, she invited a group of people to form a committee to promote indoor and outdoor play for all ages.1 TakomaPlays! was officially formed in 2009 and has an active committee of students, parents, seniors, and members of the city’s government.
1. “About Us.” TakomaPlays. < http://takomaplays.org/ > 10 July 2011.
The Association for the Study of Play (TASP) is a professional organization whose purpose is threefold: to promote the study of play, to support and cooperate with other similar organizations, and to organize meetings and publications in order to disseminate information related to play.1 Their multi-disciplinary focus includes such fields as biology, anthropology, cultural studies, ecology, education, folklore, history, kinesiology, philosophy, psychology, sociology, recreation, and the arts.
1. “TASP Membership Forms & Dues.” TASP, The Association for the Study of Play. < http://www.tasplay.org/membership.html > 1 June 2011.
Serving families in Washington, D.C., The Homeless Children's Playtime Project reduces the traumatic effects of homelessness on children who live in temporary housing programs as well as promotes their physical and psychological development. They “protect a child's right to learn and heal through play by providing opportunities to simply be a child.”1 Besides offering weekly playtime activities for children and support activities for teens, they also advocate for affordable housing and safe shelters for families.2
1. “Mission.” The Homeless Children's Playtime Project. < http://www.playtimeproject.org/what-we-do/mission/ > 6 May 2013.
2. “What We Do.” The Homeless Children's Playtime Project.
After a lifetime of collecting dolls and toys, in 1968 Margaret Woodbury Strong created the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum of Fascination in her home in Rochester, New York. For more than a decade Margaret had been conducting official and unofficial tours of her collections, so she named the official museum after the way her guests would often describe her collections.1 She hoped her museum would “fascinate, educate, and entertain.”2
The Toy Industry Association, Inc. (TIA) is a private, not-for-profit organization headquartered in New York City, New York. It was founded April 21, 1916 as the Toy Manufacturers of America, Inc. The Toy Industry Association represents more than 535 manufacturers and importers who account for 85% of the toys distributed in North America. In 2010, retail sales of toys in the United States were $21.87 billion.1
1. “About TIA.” Toy Industry Association, Inc. < http://www.toyassociation.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=About_TIA&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=3&ContentID=2546 > 17 Feb. 2011.
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an agency that was created in l972 and began operations in 1973. The main purpose of this agency is to protect the public from unnecessary harm or death from consumer products. They have thousands of consumer products that are under their jurisdiction. This Agency is headed by five commissioners that are nominated by the President of the U.S. and then confirmed by the Senate. The President appoints a Chairman of the Agency, and the terms are for seven staggered years. These commissioners set policy for the CPSC.
The U.S. Public Interest Research Group (US PIRG) is a network of researchers, advocates, organizers, and students who act as a non-partisan consumer and environmental advocacy group. They are a national federation of state Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs) comprising a half million members. Working in state capitals and Washington, DC, they work to represent the general public against special interest groups concerning such topics as product safety, health issues, political corruption, and economic policies.
The US Play Coalition is a partnership to promote the value of play throughout one’s life. It consists of individuals and organizations that recognize play as a valuable and necessary part of a healthy and productive life. This very young organization is housed within Clemson University’s College of Health, Education and Human Development. The coalition is fortunate to have Clemson University and the College of Park, Recreation and Tourism Managements’ continuing support.
The International Play Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) launched the Voice of Play Initiative in 2006 to educate the general public concerning the benefits of children's play and playgrounds.
As a nonprofit, trade organization, IPEMA was formed in 1995 to provide third-party validation of compliance to the safety standards of the ASTM International (ASTM) F1487. They have also been instrumental in fostering communication between the manufacturers in the playground industry and in promoting the quality and quantity of play opportunities and playground environments in general.
We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition)® is a national education program for parents, caregivers, and communities that assists children 8 to 13 years of age to obtain and maintain a healthy weight. Through national news and events, partnerships with corporations and organizations, and community action, We Can! is dedicated to helping families “eat right, get active, and reduce screen time.”1
1. “About We Can!” National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. < http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/wecan/about-wecan/index.htm > 8 Feb. 2012.
When the city of Winifred, Montana was planning their new multi-purpose community center, the idea of a museum to complement the already planned library, reception hall, city offices, post office, and emergency services department was proposed. At that time Roger Thompson was aware that his uncle, John Thompson, was seeking a venue for his extensive collection of Tonka Toys. John, a native of Winifred, was pleased to offer 3,000 toys out of his 5,000 piece collection making the Winifred Museum one of the largest collections of Tonka Toys in the world.1
1. “Winifred Museum.” Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). < www.youtube.com/watch?v=3A8iYaHZdUA > 3 June 2011.
Women in Toys (WIT) is a professional mentoring and networking organization for women and men within the toy, entertainment, and licensing industries. As a global organization they support and celebrate achievements of women while providing resources, access, information, and recognition for “ingenuity, resourcefulness and creativity” of both men and women in the industry.1
1. “About.” Women in Toys. < http://womenintoys.com/about/ > 6 Feb. 2013.
The World Waterpark Association (WWA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to furthering the safety and profitability of the waterpark industry. Serving the owners and managers of water-leisure facilities as well as the product manufacturers and developers, the WWA supports the growing and expanding water recreation industry.
George Williams, who found himself among the temptations of 1844 London, England, organized the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) as a refuge from the large, industrial city's streets. Focusing on Bible study, prayer, and social needs, the YMCA crossed social and religious lines among displaced youths offering safe housing and a better environment from the turmoil of the times.1
1. “The Story of our Founding.” The Y. < http://www.ymca.net/history/founding.html > 1 April 2011.
Zoos have long been a recreational attraction for children. Originally described as park-like places where animals were kept in cages or large enclosures for public exhibition, they were known as zoological gardens or menageries.1
Today’s zoos offer a wide range of design from the small city parks that have animals in cages to large safari parks that allow the animals to roam in more realistic natural settings. Most good zoos describe their missions as recreation, education, conservation, and research.2
1. “Zoo.” Dictionary.com. < http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/zoo > 20 May 2011.
2. “Recreation.” Good Zoos. < http://www.goodzoos.com/recreate.htm > 20 May 2011.